Bangladesh is a rich land of biodiversity. About 6000 species of plants are gathered in such a small area of 147570 sq km.
I am trying to introduce the flora of Bangladesh in a pack from the naturalist view, not from the eye of plant-expert. For this, there will be some unwanted mistakes.
Needless to say, pics used in this site are all original and snapped by me. The information are gathered here from the personal notes, collected books and from different websites.
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed (Tinospora cordifolia, family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia.
Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho.
Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide.
Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3.
Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human.
What an extensive climber!
Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatism, sore, abnormal heartbeat, chronic fever, cough and sexual diseases.
Jongli badam or Bastard poon tree ( Sterculia foetida , family: Sterculuaceae) is a large deciduous tree, up to 20 m in height, with branches arranged in whorls and spreading horizontally. Trunk is robust and straight. There are eye-like glands on the grey-colored bark. The tree has some resembles with Shimul . The children are in the womb! Leaves are digitately compound, leaflets 5-8, crowded at the end of branches, elliptic-lanceolate, tip elongated, acuminate, 10-18 cm long and 4-5 cm wide, petiole is very long, about 20 cm, though the length of leaflets are very short, almost sessile. Flowers are red-yellow or light purple, borne on a axillary panicles. Sepals 5. Flowers bloom is the end of winter or in spring. Although the flowers are beautiful but those have a very unpleasant odour. For this reason, the species have been named foetida
Makal or Mahakal ( Trichosanthes tricuspidata , family: Cucurbitaceae) is a woody climber with tendril and branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The multiangular-branched plant climbs up very far by holding any tree in the forest. It is found in the hilly areas as well as plain forests and village thickets in Bangladesh. It is also found in Indian subcontinent, Australia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia. According to ancient Sanskrit scriptures the other names of the plant are Bishala, Mohendro-baruni. In the Himalayas it has been seen at an altitude of 5000 feet. There are many refferences to the fruit in Bangla and Sanskrit literature. Someone is very nice to look at but he/she is useless--writers usually jokingly give examples of this fruit. Its roots and attractive fruits are packed with medicinal properties. The size and shape of leaves may vary. These are multilobed or trilobed, alternate, rough in both sides, 5-12 cm long, petioled, cor
Ashoth, Ashwatha or Bodhi tree ( Ficus religiosa , family: Moraceae) is a gigantic and very aggressive tree. This deciduous tree holds well-spread crown & has irregularly shaped trunk. T h e tree is originally found in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand. It is introduced to Israel and USA. Common names: Pippala, Peepal, Ashwattha Formation o f l eaves In Ramna Park (Dhaka) a centennial Oshoth tree is the center of attraction of the festival of Pohela Boishakh (Bangla new year) arranged by Chhayanaut. During the festival of Pohela Boishakh Deciduous ficus religiosa gives reddish new foliage in the spring (March). Fruits are fig, develop in pair on leaf axil, sessile, sub-globose, depressed & pink when ripe. Small unisexual flowers remain inside fig. It can grow everywhere in Bangladesh. It can be found on roof or window-shade of a building, in waterside area, on roadside or a huge trunk or stem of a tree.