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Dhaiphul or Fire-flame bush, Woodfordia fruticosa

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Dhaiphul or Fire-flame bush ( Woodfordia fruticosa , family: Lythraceae) is a lare-sized decidous shrub with spreading and pendulous branches, attaining a height of 4 m. Bark is brownish, smooth. Young branches pubescent when young. The plant grows on rock in hilly evergreen forests of Chattogram and Chattogram Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. It covers a vast geographical area, found from tropical Africa to East Asia. Other names: Dainphul, Dhatriphul (Bang); Red bell bush (Eng); Parvati (Sans). Leaves are green, 5-7 cm long and 1.5-3 cm wide, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate with curved and elongated apex, base rounded or cordate; opposite or subopposite, short-petioled or sessile. The lateral veins of blade unexpctedly merge before the edge. 3-16 reddish orange flowers in axillary cymes, short-peduncled, glandular-pubescent. Calyx 1.5 cm long, base campanulate, tube bright red. Sepals 5. Petals slightly longer than calyx-teeth. Flowering occurs at the end of winter to spring. Fruit is a

Muchokundo or Mapple-leaved bayur, Pterospermum acerifolium

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Muchokundo or Mapple-leaved bayur ( Pterospermum acerifolium , family: Sterculiaceae) is a large-sized evergreen tree with pubescent young shoots, rounded trunk and Mapple-like leaves, attaining a height of 30 m. Bark is grey, glabrous and soft. Wood is reddish. It is found in the forest of Chattogram and Chattogram Hill Tracts and Sylhet in Bangladesh. It is planted in parks, botanical gardens and beside avenue as an ornamental tree. The tall tree is indigenous to Indian subcontinent as well as some countries of Southeast Asia. Other names: Muskanda, Konokchapa (Bang); Dinnerplate tree, Bayur tree (Eng). Leaves are large, usually 12-20 cm long and 10-15 cm wide, multilobed or palmate, irregularly toothed, base cordate, upper part dark green and glabrous, bronzy and tomentose beneath, alternate; petiole pinkish, 5-15 cm long. Flowers are quite big, single or 2-3-flowered, fragrant and pure white, nocturnal; sepals 5, petals 5. Sepals are linear-lanceolate, rusty pubescent, thick, ref

Bon-jam or Kak-jam, Syzygium fruticosum

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Bon-jam or Kak-jam ( Syzygium fruticosum , family: Myrtaceae) is a small or medium-sized tree with short trunk and glabrous all of its parts, attaining a height of 10 m. Bark is greyish brown. The tree looks a lot like Black plum,  Syzygium cumini but is small in size. The plant is native to Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, China and Thailand. It is found in village area, parks and gardens and forest margins in the country. Other local name: Buti-jam   Leaves are dark green with clear midrib and numerous lateral nerves, coriaceous, undulated, oblong-lanceolae, 6-12 cm long and 3-5 cm wide, apex acuminated, base rounded, petioled, opposite. Flowers are in cluster on cyme inflorescence, up to 8 cm long. Flowers are white, stamens numerous, tiny, sessile.  Fruit is a edible berry, globose, ellipsoid, 5-9 mm long. These are deep purple when ripe. Flowering occurs in summer (Apr-May). Fruit ripens in rainy season. The plant is propagated by seeds. Its fruits are frequently consume by village

Cream fruit or Climbing Oleander, Strophanthus gratus

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Cream fruit or Climbing Oleander ( Strophanthus gratus , family: Apocynaceae) is a climbing shrub with woody stem and spectacular flowers, can be up to 25 m long. Stem is dark grey and young shoots are dark purple with numerous light dots. Most of the time it grows to the size of a shrub with a length of 2-3 m only. It is one of the most adorable flowering climbers of the tropics. In Bangladesh, it is found in parks and botanical gardens as an ornamental plant. The vigorous climber is originated in tropical Africa. Other names:  Rose allamanda, Spider-tresses, Poison arrow vine.  Leaves are dark green, thick, leathery, glabrous and shiny, oblong-elliptical, 8-16 cm long. Flowers are beautiful, occur in March-August. Flowers are spectacular, 6-10 flowers in terminal inflorescence, rose-scented, wide-throated, funnel-shaped, 5-6 cm long, purplish white. Sepals 5, petals 5. Fruits are pods, very long, 18-40 cm. The propagation of the semideciduous plant is caused by seeds and cuttings.

Dunil or Koya-jarul, Premna bengalensis

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Dunil or Koya-jarul ( Premna bengalensis , famliy: Lamiaceae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree often with fluted trunk and somewhat quadrangular branches and shoots. Its stem, reddish young shoots, leaves and inflorescence are stellately tomentosed. Bark is ashy-grey and it removes papery flakes from its body. The geographical extent of the plant is not so large. It is found in hilly and plain lands of Bangladesh as well as India, Nepal, Vietnam and Myanmar.  Other local names: Pakirhara, Pakhir-har, Aholauja, Phongta. Leaves are simple, thin, shiny and light green, coriaceous, elliptic to ovate-oblong, 8-24 cm long and 4-10 cm wide, petioled, usually entire, sometimes irregularly dented, tip acuminated, opposite.  Flowering occurs in May-September. Tiny flowers are borne in large terminal inflorescence. These are bisexual, greenish white, white or yellowish with 2-lipped corolla, calyx tubular, 4-5-lobed.  Fruit is a drupe, round, 4-5 mm in diameter, it turns black when ripe. The pl

Lau or Bottle gourd, Lagenaria siceraria

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Lau or Bottle gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria , family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual vine with pubescent and angular stem and tendrils, attaining a length of 5 m. It is one of the most popular and widely cultivated vegetables in Bangladesh. It is grown as a homestead vegetable in almost every household in the village. Whole plant is consumed by the locals of the country except roots. The much-branched climber is probably originated in tropical Africa. Now it is found throughout the Asia and other tropics as well as some temperate areas of Asia, Africa and Americas.  Other names: Kodu, Pani lau (Bang); Calabash, Club gourd, White-flowered gourd (Eng). Leaves are thin, multilobed (5-9 usually), broadly ovate, 8-32 cm long and wide too, puberulous both sides, palmately veined, irregularly toothed, deeply cordate at base and tip acute, petiole 8-24 cm long, thick, hollow sometimes. The plant is monoeceous. Flowers are usually white, but can be yellow too. Male flowers' peduncle is as lon

Dhundul or Smooth loofah, Luffa cylindrica

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Dhundul or Smooth loofah ( Luffa cylindrica , family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual extensive climber with profuse branches and tendrils. Stem is stout, glabrous and angular. As vegetables, its fruit is one of the most popular one in Bangladesh. The plant is widely cultivated in the country as commercial crops. It is found in South and Southeast Asia and other tropical areas of the world. It is probably originated in South and Southeast Asia. Other names:  Purul, Tipola (Bang); Sponge gourd, Egyptian cucumber, Vietnamese luffa, Vegetable-sponge (Eng). Leaves are multilobed, usually 5-7, glabrous or slightly hairy, 14-26 cm long and wide too; base cordate, tip acute or acuminate. Petiole 10-12 cm long.  The plant is monoecious. Flowers are bright yellow, usually 15-20 male flowers in raceme inflorescence, 5-10 cm wide; female flowers solitary, both male and female are long-peduncled.  Fruits are cylindric, smooth and marked with 7-9 straight lines, straight or slightly curved, 20-35 cm l

Shidur kolmi or Scarlet morning glory, Ipomoea hederifolia

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Shidur kolmi or Scarlet morning glory ( Ipomoea hederifolia , family: Convolvulaceae) is an annual twiner with narrow and weak stem. It is originated in tropical and subtropical America. In Bangladesh, it is naturalised mainly in the wild areas of Chattogram Hiil Tracts.  Other names: Shurjokanti, Lal morning glory (Bang.); Scarlet creeper, Star ipomoea, Ivy-leaved morning glory (Eng).  Leaves are variable. These are thin and glabrous, 3-14 long and 4-10 cm wide, ovate-orbicular, multilobed (usually 3-lobed), cordate at base and acuminate at tip, opposite, long-petioled. Flowers are in terminal or axillary cymes, usually 1-9, scarlet, 3-4 cm long, sepals 5, petals 5, tube narrow; stamens 5, exserted. Flowering occurs in November-March. Fruit is a capsule, globular. The fast-growing twiner is propagated by seeds. The genus name of the vine 'hederifolia' is derrived from it's Ivy-like leaves.  The fruit is a round capsule up to 8 mm in diameter containing a few seeds.  Syn

Agmukhi or Madras pea pumpkin, Mukia maderaspatana

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Agmukhi or Madras pea pumpkin ( Mukia maderaspatana , family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual much-branched climber with angular shoots and tendrils, attaining a length of 3-4 m. There are spine-looking hairs all over its body. It is found in village thickets and fallow lands scatteredly all over Bangladesh. Sometimes it is found grabbing spiny herbs or shrubs to survive with hostile condition properly. It is also found in some countries of South and Southeast Asia also. Other names:   Bilari, Agamukhi (Bang); Rough bryoni (Eng).   Leaves are variable; mutilobed, usualy 3-5 lobed, can be found ovate and cordate at base, 5-9 cm long, both sides rough, dented irregularly, long-petioled, alternate. Flowers are tiny, 1 cm across, bright yellow, calyx tubular, petals 5, sepals 5, stamens 3. Flowering occurs in August-December. Fruits are hairy too. Green pea-sized fruits are stripped with two sahdes of green or green when raw and vivid red when mature. Flowers and fruits can be seen at a tim