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Showing posts from May, 2021

Choto betmara or Choto birmala, Calliandra umbrosa

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Choto betmara or Choto birmal a ( Calliandra umbrosa , family: Mimosaceae) is a small-sized deciduous tree with narrow and drooping branches, attaining a height of 3 m. It is found at the foot hills and near streams in Chattogram and Chattogram Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. It is also found in Eastern India, Myanmar, China as well as few countries of Southeast Asia. Leaves are large, elliptic-oblong, glabrous, slighty leathery, 3-14 cm long and 3-5 cm, sessile, apex acute or blunted. Pinnae 2, each has 2 leaves but sometimes a smaller one may be present. Stipules 2, tiny. Flowers are usually in globose head, axillary or on old wood, small, white, with numerous stames like other members of Calliandra genus; filaments white. Female and male flowers look similar. It blooms in the rainy season to autumn. [Pure-shaped (Calliandra-looking) flowers were not found due to rain] Fruit is pod, flattened, dark brown, 8-15 cm long and 2-3 cm wide, dehiscent. Seeds 4. When wood is burned, it gives off

Jongoilla shak or Dogal tree, Sarcochlamys pulcherrima

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Jongoilla shak or Dogal tree (Sarcochlamys pulcherrima , family: Urticaceae) is a large shrub or small tree, attaining a height of 2-5 m. Young shoots are somewhat multi-angled and covered with minute hairs. The evergreen plant is found near the streams or fountains in the forests of Sylhet, Chattogram and Chattogram Hill Tracts. It has been also found in the Southern coastal region and in Netrokona. In addition to the country, it can be found in several South and South Asian countries.   Other names: Moriccha, Achila, Pahari kewra. Leaves are beautiful, shiny green and rough, slightly leathery, narrowly lanceolate, 12-18 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, petioled, alternate, 3-veind, mainly but have numerous irregular vein-like marks; edge regularly toothed, tip pointed. Upper part of the blade is shiny green, lower is whitish green. Stipules are tiny, reddish. Flowers are in branched spikes. These are dioecious (female and male are in separate plant). Fruit is achene. It is propagated by s

Maila aam or Burmese Plum, Bouea oppositifolia

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Maila aam or Burmese Plum ( Bouea oppositifolia , family: Anacardiaceae) is a large evergreen tree with dense canopy and shortened trunk, almost similar characteristics of Mango . Trunk is huge and cylindrical. Bark is dark grey. New shoots are slightly hairy. It can get a height about 30 m. The is found only the Southeastern part of Asia. In Bangladesh it is found in the forests of Chottogram and Chottogram Hill Tracts. It is marked as a rare tree. Several of its trees are preserved in Ramna Park, Dhaka.   Common names: Mailla aam, Moilla aam, Moya aam, Miri aam, Bellum, Bhallam (Bang); Marian Plum (Eng). Leaves are scented, simple, entire, dark green, look alike Mango, but much smaller and narrower than that; lanceolate, 8-20 cm long and 3-6 cm wide, pointed at the end, opposite; petiole 1-3 cm long.  Flowers appear in terminal inflorescence, 8-12 cm long. Florets are tiny,  brownish color, petals 4. Flowering occurs in end of winter.  Fruit  is drupe, ovoid or round, 3-5 cm long

Namuti or Madras Carpet, Grangea maderaspatana

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Namuti or Madras Carpet ( Grangea maderaspatana , family: Asteraceae) is an annual prostrate and aromatic herb with branches at the base and centre, extends from 15 to 30 cm. Branches and leaves are hairy. As a medicinal plant it is mentioned in Ayurveda. It grows mostly in moist places, crop fields, ditches, on fallow lands and beside the roads all over the country. It is also found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Other names: Guz, Nimuti, Holde nim, Shubeda ghash. Leaves are multilobed, thick, hairy, light green-colored, 3-10 cm long, opposite, sessile.  Flowers are small, yellow, borne on round peduncled head rising from leaf axil, disk flatened. Both male and female flowers are gathered on the same disc. Flowers bloom throughout the dry season (Dec-Apr).  Fruit is cypsela. The calyx turns into pappus and covers the fruit. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.  The juice of the leaves reduces ear pain, reduces abdominal pain and enhances eyesight. Root of

Gorjon or Gurjan, Dipterocarpus turbinatus

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Gorjon or Gurjan ( Dipterocarpus turbinatus , family: Dipterocarpaceae) is a diciduous lofty tree with a long straight bole forming a crown at the top with few branches, attaining a height of 50 m. Bark is grey. The young parts of the long-living tree, especially the leaf buds and young shoots are covered with gray-colored hairs. Trunk emits a kind of sticky sap. It is found in the forests of Chattogram, Chattogram Hll Tracts and Sylhet. The giant tree is also found in several countries of South and Southeast Asia.  Other names: Telia gorjon, Teli gorjon, Dhulia gorjon, Kali gorjon (Bang); Garjan balsam (Eng).  Leaves are simple, big, ovate-lanceolate, bright green, 12-30 cm long and 08-12 cm wide, petioled, alternate, edge undulated, tip pointed. The texture of veins are quite strong and clear. Leaves arise from the long and whitish or brownish stipules. The young leaves are glossy, spectacular bronze-colored. Flowers are pinkish white, leathery, tubular, in raceme inflorescence, 6

Nilambori or Blue fox tail, Ecbolium viride

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Nilambori or Blue fox tail ( Ecbolium viride , family: Acanthaceae) is a perennial woody herb or undershrub with leafy bracts and spectacular bluish flower, attaining a height of 1 m. The branches of the erect herb is quadrangular. It is found found in Tropical Asia and Africa. In Bangladesh it is found in village thickets and Sal forests. Other names: Nil jhinti, Nil Kata, Nilkontho (Bang); Turquoise crossandra (Eng). Leaves are shiny green, lanceolate, 10-15 cm long and 5-7 cm wide, edge undulated (at first glance it looks toothed), opposite, almost sessile, elongated and acute at the end. Bracts are green-colored, arranged in upright and compact spike. Flowers are light blue, in terminnal or axillary inflorescence. Upper lip of the showy flower is linear, shortly bilobed and erect, lower one is 3-lobed, middle one is broader. Corolla tube is whitish blue, narrow and very long. Flowering and fruiting occur round the year. Fruit is a 2-seeded capsule.  The medicinal plant is used i

Kukshim or Little ironweed, Cyanthillium cinereum

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Kukshim or Little ironweed ( Cyanthillium cinereum , Family: Asteraceae) is a annual or perennial herb with branches and wooly hairs all over the body, attaining a height of 20-40 cm. The plant is found all over Bangladesh. The original home of the erect herb is tropical Asia and Africa. It is now widespread throughout the tropics. Other names:  Shohodebi, Choto kukshim (Bang); Ash-colored fleabane, Goat-weed (Eng). Leaves are dark green, petioled, oblanceolate or obovate, 2-6 cm long and 1-3 wide. Flowers are in composite inflorescence, violet or white, borne on peduncled head. The tiny flowers bloom all year round.  Fruits are achene, on globose or subglobose head. Seeds can easily propagated far and wide with the help of floating seeds. Leaf juice is bitter and used to kill intestinal worms. Leaf is also used in skin diseases. Flower is effective in fever, common cold, rheumatism and eye diseases. It is consumed as vegetable somewhere in Africa. Younger plant Synonyms: Blumea esq

Kanta mehedi or Golden dewdrop, Duranta erecta

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Kanta mehedi or Golden dewdrop ( Duranta erecta , family: Verbenaceae) is a vigorous and poisonous bushy shrub with drooping branches, attaining a height of 7 m. Bark is brownish. Usually there are no thorns on its body but some plants do, especially in older plants. It is drought-tolerant and can grow well in shade or in bright light. It is found everywhere in Bangladesh as an ornamental plant. Its original home is tropical America. It is famous all over the tropical world for its beauty. In Bangla, it is also known as Duronto. Leaves are light green, sometimes yellowish, deeply dented, opposite, 3-7 cm long and 2-4 cm wide. Flowers are light blue, deep purple or white, sweet-scented. These are small, on 10-15 cm long raceme inflorescence. Petals, 5, sepals 5. Fruit is berry, subglobose, turns orange when ripe. Flowering and fruiting occur throughout the year. Propagation is caused by seeds and cuttings.  Leaves and fruits are poisonous. The plant is used for preparing insecticide.

Khudey ghonti or Littlebell, Ipomoea triloba

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Khudey ghonti or Littlebell ( Ipomoea triloba,  family: Convolvulaceae) is a twining annual creeper, attaining a lengthe of 2-3 m. The creeper is usually found scattered on the ground or on a bush. Stem is usually hairy, slender or angular and green, sometimes reddish. It creeps or climbs by grabbing something by using its tendril-like new shoots. When a part of its body is injured or its leaves are crushed it releases a kind of milky substance. Although it is a tropical American species, it has adapted well to tropical areas of Asia and Africa. The water-loving creeper is found beside the waterbodies, ditches and roadsides of Bangladesh. Other names:  Ghonta kolmi (Bang), Three-lobed morning glory (Eng). The leaves of the members of the Morning glory family are usually varied in size and shapes. No exceptions are observed in this case. These are usually three-lobed but can also be heart-shaped, especially the young leaves. Leaves are thin, minutely hairy, long-petioled, light green i

Kaladana or Ivy Woodrose, Merremia hederacea

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Kaladana or Ivy Woodrose ( Merremia hederacea , family: Convolvulaceae) is an annual twinning climber or trailer with numerous branches, attaining a length of 2-3 m. The stem of the water-loving plant is thin, slender and glabrous. Young leaves as well as young shoots are reddish. Its young shoots act like tendrils and can climb up by the support of something. It can survive for some days insubmerged condition. It is found near waterbodies, on fallow lands and in ditches in Bangladseh. It is also found in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia and Africa.  Other name: Komalota The shape and size of the leaves vary. These can be heart-shaped, tri-lobed or multi-lobed; cordate at base, tip is elongated and usually blunt, 2-5 cm long, 1.5-4 cm in diameter. Veins and midribs of are reddish. Petiole is reddish and very long.   Flowers are in umbellate inflorescence, light yellow or white, tiny, tubular, single or clustered. Corolla 1 cm long, lobes 10. Stamens 5, filament is is mu

Onguli lota or Tiger's footprint, Ipomoea pes-tigridis

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Onguli lota or Tiger's footprint ( Ipomoea pes-tigridis , family: Convolvulaceae) is an annual hairy climber from Morning glory family with beautiful leaves and spectacular milk-white showy flowers. Its entire body is covered with light brown-colored erect and long but soft hairs. It prefers open daylight and sandy as well as mildy wet soil. It usually climbs up when it finds a support but also likes to creep on the ground. Its length is usually not more than 4 meters. The twining climber is found in cropfields, beside roads, on fallow lands in Bangladesh. It is also found throughout tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa. Other names: Languli lota, Baghpoda.  Variations are seen in the size and shape of the leaves. These are minutely hairy, palmate, usually 5-7 lobes, but can be more than that; 5-10 cm wide, long-petioled. Midribs spread to each lobe arising from the center of the blade. The name of the plant 'Tiger's footprint' is given for this specia