Arjun or Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna, family: Combretaceae) is a medium or large-sized deciduous tree, of about 20-25 m height, with numerous drooping branches and large canopy. Bark is thick, whitish grey, smooth and loose. Wood is hard. It has long been used as one of the most popular medicinal plants in the Indian subcontinent. The tree is native to Bangladesh as well as Indian subcontinent. It is also found in some countries of South and Southeast Asia.
Common names: Arjuna, Arjun tree.
Leaves are simple, green, oblong and surprisingly conic, 10-20 cm long and 8-10 cm wide, sessile or less petioled, opposite, tip blunted.
Flowers on spike inflorescence, are small and whitish yellow. Flowering occurs in April-May with the arrival of new leaves.
Fruit is somewhat 5-angular and winged, woody, 2.5-3.5 cm long. Propagation is caused by seeds.
Propagation is caused by seeds. Local herbalists and enthusiasts do not allow the trunk of this tree to remain intact in order to get its bark filled with medicinal properties. Within a few days, however, it
healed its wound by creating some wrinkles in the trunk.
Its bark extract is used for cardiac diseases, as it contains tannin. Leaves are used for urinary disease, wound, dysentery, fever and pain. According to herbalists, drinking the juice of its bark with sugar and milk every morning cures heart disease. Decoction of the bark is very beneficial in diarrhea and hemorrhoids. The Vedic name of the tree is Kakubha. It is mentioned in ancient Charaka and Sushruta texts.
Synonyms: Pentaptera angustifolia, Pentaptera arjuna, Pentaptera glabra, Pentaptera obovata.
Til or Sesame ( Sesamum indicum , family: Pedaliaceae) is an annual herb with hollow stem and branches attaining a height of 50 to 100 cm. Sesame or Til seed is one of the oldest oil-seed crops o f t h e w o r l d. The plant is originated in Africa. It is cultivated as crop throughout the tropical world. Leaves are opposite, broad lanceolate, dark green, 4- 14 cm long with an entire margin . Flower is hairy, white or light pink, borne on leaf axil; 3-5 cm long with a four-lobed mouth. In Bangladesh, i t blooms generally in April-May. Sesame fruit is a rectangular capsule, 2-7 cm long, covered with tiny soft hair . Tiler khaja, a type of sweetened food made from sesame seed is very popular in Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. Seeds are usually off-white in c o l o r. Sesame is energizing, carminative and diuretic. It increases breast milk and sperms in male. It has been found useful in dyspepsia a
Shimul or Red silk-cotton ( Bombax ceiba , family: Malvaceae) is one of the most common trees that found in Bangladesh. This deciduous straight tall tree with thorny trunk and spreading crown is also found in tropical regions of Asia. In Bangladesh, the tree is planted in parks and on highways and beside national monuments for its gorgeous fire-red flowers. It can reach a height up to 60 m. Common names: Shimul, Red silk-cotton, Red cotton tree. Leaves are large, spreading, glabrous, digitate, leaflets lanceolate, entire, 10-15 cm long; petiole is up to 20 cm long. It blooms in spring (March-April). Flowers red, numerous, appearing when the tree is bare of leaves, stamens numerous arranged in five outer bundles and one middle bundle. Fruit capsules, woody valves. 10-13 cm in length. Seeds smooth, black or grey embedded in long white wool. Oh! the flame of the forest! Young plant is used in dysentery, cough, plethora, malnutrition and sexu
Danda-kolosh or Shetodron ( Leucas aspera , family: Lamiaceae) is an annual herb with soft, hairy and qudrangular stem. The weed is found in South and Southeast Asia. It prefers dry, open and sandy soil. The under-shrub can reach a height of 30-50 cm. Other local names: Dolkolosh, Julfi, Holkosha, Debdron. Flowers rise from axillary whorls are pure white, small and showy. Petals 5, sepals 5, bilabiate. It blooms in March-April mainly. Flower contains nectar. Leaves are short petioled, entire, oblong-lanceolate, taper at the base; 6-8 cm long and 1-2 cm wide. In Sanskrit, it is called 'Dronapushpi'. Oblong fruits are nutlets, brown in color; 2-3 mm long. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. The plant is full of medicinal qualities. Whole plant is used to prepare medicine, which is effective in cold and headache. The leaves contain antibacterial elements. It is used to cure psoriasis and scabies. Those are eaten as vegetable