Arjun or Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna, family: Combretaceae) is a medium or large-sized deciduous tree, of about 20-25 m height, with numerous drooping branches and large canopy. Bark is thick, whitish grey, smooth and loose. Wood is hard. It has long been used as one of the most popular medicinal plants in the Indian subcontinent. The tree is native to Bangladesh as well as Indian subcontinent. It is also found in some countries of South and Southeast Asia.
Common names: Arjuna, Arjun tree.
Leaves are simple, green, oblong and surprisingly conic, 10-20 cm long and 8-10 cm wide, sessile or less petioled, opposite, tip blunted.
Flowers on spike inflorescence, are small and whitish yellow. Flowering occurs in April-May with the arrival of new leaves.
Fruit is somewhat 5-angular and winged, woody, 2.5-3.5 cm long. Propagation is caused by seeds.
Propagation is caused by seeds. Local herbalists and enthusiasts do not allow the trunk of this tree to remain intact in order to get its bark filled with medicinal properties. Within a few days, however, it
healed its wound by creating some wrinkles in the trunk.
Its bark extract is used for cardiac diseases, as it contains tannin. Leaves are used for urinary disease, wound, dysentery, fever and pain. According to herbalists, drinking the juice of its bark with sugar and milk every morning cures heart disease. Decoction of the bark is very beneficial in diarrhea and hemorrhoids. The Vedic name of the tree is Kakubha. It is mentioned in ancient Charaka and Sushruta texts.
Synonyms: Pentaptera angustifolia, Pentaptera arjuna, Pentaptera glabra, Pentaptera obovata.
Hijol or Indian oak ( Barringtonia acutangula , family: Lecythidaceae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree, native to riverine Bangladesh. This water-loving tree is found in the wetlands of Bangladesh. In rural areas, it can be seen standing in the water like Koronja . Common names: Hijal, Hijangal, Hendol. Leaves are short petioled, serrated, 7-12 cm long and 3-7 cm wide, crowded at the end of the branches. Flowers are small, pink to red, sub-sessile, purple red with numerous stamens. Inflorescence is 20-30 cm long, pendulous raceme, flower openning from top to downwards. The 4-merous flowers are grouped in long & pendulous racemes up to 20-30 cm long. The cup-shaped calyx is light green in color. Flowers bloom in April-May. In the winter Its bark has tannin which is useful for heart diseases. Powder of seeds works expectorant and applied to cure cough of children. Tonic is prepared from leaves and roots. Fish poison is also prepared from its roots
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Kulekhara or Talmakhna ( Hygrophila auriculata , family: Acanthaceae) is a stout and erect herb with straight and undivided stem. The spiny plant is very popular as a medicinal plant in Bangladesh as well as the Indian subcontinent. Other names: Kulekkha, Kuiley-rekha, Kanta kalika, Shoolmordon. Leaves are lanceolate, subsessile, acute at both ends with long whitish hairs, dense with straight and stout thorns that grow from each node. Outer leaves are longer than the inner ones. Both leaves and thorns remain in upward direction. Flowers in axillary whorls. They are bright violet or bluish purple and red, sometimes whitish with soft and minor hair, corolla 2-lipped. Flower blooms in the winter. Fruit a capsule, 4-8-seeded. Seeds are ovoid (not in the pic). The body of the plant contains alkaloids, phytosterols, stigmasterol, lupeol and essential oils. Its seeds contain oil, enzymes and sterols. The plant is cooling and diuretic in cases of h