Akondo or Crown flower (Calotropis gigantea, family: Apocynaceae) is a perennial shrub with branches and milky latex, attaining a height of 5 m. Bark is grey. The stem is slightly wooody and much branched at the base. Some plants have been found whose trunks are quite hard and woody and those look like small-sized trees.
Common names: Akkan, Madar.
Young shoots and lower part of leaves are tomentose. The plant is an iconic one in the rural areas in Bangladesh. It is found in several countries in South and Southeast Asia, including the Indian subcontinent, China, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand.
Branches and leaves emit milk when snapped. Leaves are whitish green, leathery, short-petioled or sessile, broadly ovate, 10-20 cm long and 6-12 cm wide, tip slightly pointed.
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The fruit is ovoid, curved, 6-8 cm long and 3-5 cm wide, tomentose, dehiscent, yields cotton; borne usually in a pair.
It grows on fallow lands all over Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds and cuttings.
It is used in cough, cold, asthma and insect poisoning. A fine fibre is obtained from its stem. Cotton from the seeds is used to make pillows. Fresh leaves are used in rheumatic pains. The extract of roots is used as a a tonic. Laxative is made from its milky latex and is used in leprosy. Roots are used to make toothbrush and to cure toothache.
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Deua or Monkey jack ( Artocarpus lacucha , family: Moraceae) a large tree with large spreading crown, of 12-18 m height. The bark of the deciduous tree is grey and coarse. The type of its fruit reminds us of Jackfruit . It is found in South and Southeast Asia. It is one of the most common trees found in Bangladesh. Other names: Delo madar, deyphol, Deuphol, Dehua, Deua cham, Barta, Dalo, Bon kathal. Leaves are broadly elliptic, entire, rough, brittle, 10-30 cm long and 10-18 cm wide, undulate, back hairy, leathery. Flowers are small, without petals. Male and female flowers grow on the same inflorescence. Female inflorescence has pedicel, though the male one has none. The fruits come from the female flowers. Fruit is a syncarp (multiple fruit, which is fleshy), wavy, velvety, bright yellow or orange when ripe, 5-10 cm in diameter. The fruit is sour-tasted but also somewhat sweet. It is eaten raw or pickled. Seed is oblong and white in color. The pl
Kolmi-lota or Water spinach (I pomoea aquatica , family: Convolvulaceae) is an annual floating herb from Morning glory family. It is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, most commonly in East, South and Southeast Asia. Stem is soft and creeping nature. It grows in water or on the edge of water bodies. Common names: Kalmilata, Water spinach, River spinach, Water morning glory, Water convolvulus, Swamp cabbage The hollow stems of ipomoea aquatica are 2-5 meters or more long, rooting at the nodes. Leaves are long-petioled, green, ovate-cordate with pointed apex, 5-15 cm long and 2-8 cm wide , alternate. Flowers are whitish-violet or white, showy, single, axillary, funnel-shaped, 3-5 cm in diameter. Flower bloom s mainly in autumn. Propagation is either by planting cuttings of the stem shoots that will root along nodes or planting the seeds from flowers that produce seed pods. It is useful in pox and in