Durba-ghash or Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon, family: Gramineae) is a perennial grass with cylindrical nodes and internodes. It creeps on ground by creating roots from nodes of stem. Stem (up to 45 cm long) is usually green, sometimes reddish. The creeping herb is a traditional medicinal plant of the Indian subcontinent.
It is found all over the country as a crop weed. It is also found in South and Southeast Asia and The tropical region of Africa. Although its roots do not go deep into the soil, it retains the soil quite well. Otherwise, in a rainy country like ours, it would have been impossible to prevent soil erosion.
Leaves are narrow or linear with pointed tip, pale green, minutly hairy, 2-8 cm long. The leaf ligules are covered with thin white hairs.
Inflorescence is brownish green, divided in to 5 parts, each part 2-5 cm long. Flowering occurs almost round the year. It is propagated by seeds, rhyzome and stolon.
The plant contains triterpenoids, proteins, carbohydrates and many organic acids. It is used as uretic. Leaf juice is used in inflammed tumours, whitlows toothache, eczema, menstruation and to stop bleeding. The plant is also used in syphilis and inflammation of the urethra.
Its roots cannot go deep into the soil. However, being one of the most beautiful grass species, it is planted in garden lawns as an ornamental plant. There are many references in Bengali folklore about this plant. It is an essential element of Hindu worship.
Kodbel or Elephant wood apple ( Feronia limonia , family: Rutaceae) is medium-sized fruit-giving tree with straight trunk and numerous branches. Bark is dark grey. It has straight spines in axil. Some parts of the tree are quite fragrant--leaves, ripe fruits, seeds etc. The tree is planted as ornamental one in parks and gardens nowadays in Bangladesh. It is planted in the country as a homestead tree too. Other Bangla names: Koyetbel, Chirpaki. Leaflet is small, 5-7, and 3-4 cm wide, opposite, cuneate or obovate. Leaves are scented. Flowers are good-looking, showy. Those are reddish; calyx 5-lobbed, triangular; petals ovate. Male and female flowers can be seen in the same panicle. Flower blooms in March-April. Fruit is round, greenish white or ye l l o w is h w h ite at a glance, 8-10 cm in diameter. Skin is very hard but fragile. The pulp is fleshy and soft. Raw pulp is light brown, ripe is deep chocholate or yelowish brown. The ripe fruit is qu
Makal or Mahakal ( Trichosanthes tricuspidata , family: Cucurbitaceae) is a woody climber with tendril and branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The multiangular-branched plant climbs up very far by holding any tree in the forest. It is found in the hilly areas as well as plain forests and village thickets in Bangladesh. It is also found in Indian subcontinent, Australia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia. According to ancient Sanskrit scriptures the other names of the plant are Bishala, Mohendro-baruni. In the Himalayas it has been seen at an altitude of 5000 feet. There are many refferences to the fruit in Bangla and Sanskrit literature. Someone is very nice to look at but he/she is useless--writers usually jokingly give examples of this fruit. Its roots and attractive fruits are packed with medicinal properties. The size and shape of leaves may vary. These are multilobed or trilobed, alternate, rough in both sides, 5-12 cm long, petioled, cor
Kulekhara or Talmakhna ( Hygrophila auriculata , family: Acanthaceae) is a stout and erect herb with straight and undivided stem. The spiny plant is very popular as a medicinal plant in Bangladesh as well as the Indian subcontinent. Other names: Kulekkha, Kuiley-rekha, Kanta kalika, Shoolmordon. Leaves are lanceolate, subsessile, acute at both ends with long whitish hairs, dense with straight and stout thorns that grow from each node. Outer leaves are longer than the inner ones. Both leaves and thorns remain in upward direction. Flowers in axillary whorls. They are bright violet or bluish purple and red, sometimes whitish with soft and minor hair, corolla 2-lipped. Flower blooms in the winter. Fruit a capsule, 4-8-seeded. Seeds are ovoid (not in the pic). The body of the plant contains alkaloids, phytosterols, stigmasterol, lupeol and essential oils. Its seeds contain oil, enzymes and sterols. The plant is cooling and diuretic in cases of h