Kushum or Ceylon oak (Schleichera oleosa, family: Sapindaceae) is a large-sized deciduous tree with spreading canopy and huge trunk, attaining a height up to 40 m. The diameter of the trunk can be up to 2 meters. Bark is grey and smooth. The leaves fall at the end of winter and new leaves come in spring. The leaves are surprisingly red.
Other names: Joyna, Lakkha, Gum tree, Honey tree.
This giant tree can be easily recognized by shiny red leaves. The fruits look a lot like Lotkon and are called by this name somewhere. It can be seen scattered in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts including the northern part of the country. It is originated in the Southeast region of Asia, especially in India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar.
Leaves are compound, sessile; leaflets elliptic-obovate, 4-20 cm long and 3-9 cm wide, opposite. The extraordinary young leaves are brilliant red in color. These are seen several times a year.
Raceme inflorescence 6-15 cm long. Flowers are greenish yellow, without petals. Flowering occurs Feb-March.
Fruits broadly ovoid to globose, sometimes bilobed, 2-5 cm long, single or 2-seeded. Fruits are edible.
As an ornamental tree it is planted beside avenue, in park, garden and botanical garden in Bangladesh. Oil is extracted from its seeds and it is used in rheumatism, skin diseases and headache and for hair growth. The Santals use its bark for back pain and waist pain. It is also used to light lamps. Its timber is valuable and used to make industrial and agricultural tools. Wood is the finest coal. Bark is used for dyeing clothes. Lac bug is cultivated in the plant somewhere.
Synonym: Schleichera trijuga
Hijol or Indian oak ( Barringtonia acutangula , family: Lecythidaceae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree, native to riverine Bangladesh. This water-loving tree is found in the wetlands of Bangladesh. In rural areas, it can be seen standing in the water like Koronja . Common names: Hijal, Hijangal, Hendol. Leaves are short petioled, serrated, 7-12 cm long and 3-7 cm wide, crowded at the end of the branches. Flowers are small, pink to red, sub-sessile, purple red with numerous stamens. Inflorescence is 20-30 cm long, pendulous raceme, flower openning from top to downwards. The 4-merous flowers are grouped in long & pendulous racemes up to 20-30 cm long. The cup-shaped calyx is light green in color. Flowers bloom in April-May. In the winter Its bark has tannin which is useful for heart diseases. Powder of seeds works expectorant and applied to cure cough of children. Tonic is prepared from leaves and roots. Fish poison is also prepared from its roots
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Kulekhara or Talmakhna ( Hygrophila auriculata , family: Acanthaceae) is a stout and erect herb with straight and undivided stem. The spiny plant is very popular as a medicinal plant in Bangladesh as well as the Indian subcontinent. Other names: Kulekkha, Kuiley-rekha, Kanta kalika, Shoolmordon. Leaves are lanceolate, subsessile, acute at both ends with long whitish hairs, dense with straight and stout thorns that grow from each node. Outer leaves are longer than the inner ones. Both leaves and thorns remain in upward direction. Flowers in axillary whorls. They are bright violet or bluish purple and red, sometimes whitish with soft and minor hair, corolla 2-lipped. Flower blooms in the winter. Fruit a capsule, 4-8-seeded. Seeds are ovoid (not in the pic). The body of the plant contains alkaloids, phytosterols, stigmasterol, lupeol and essential oils. Its seeds contain oil, enzymes and sterols. The plant is cooling and diuretic in cases of h