Chakunda or Sickle senna (Senna tora, family: Caesalpiniaceae) is an annual erect herb with branches, attaining a height of 1-1.5 m. Stem is hairless, slender or angular. Though the upperside of the stem is smoothless and has linear marks and somewhat odorous. It is a common herb in Bangladesh, found beside road, in fallow land, cropfield and waterside area. Sometimes it is found standing in water also. It is also found in the countries of South and Southeast Asia.
Other names: Kalkasham, Teraj, Eraj, Eraich, Gol eski, Choto kolkashundey (Though Senna sophera is also called by the same name by folks of the country).
The leaves look a lot like Dadmordon (Senna alata) but much smaller in size. These are compound, leaflet 3 pairs at the end of long pinnae, last pair is larger than others. Leaflet is obovate, 2.5-5 cm long and 1.5-2.5 cm wide with soft hairs, petioled, opposite.
Flowers are yellow and borne in pair at leaf axil, 1.5 cm wide. Petals 5, sepals 5. Flowering occurs in May-July. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.
Fruit is a pod, 10-30 cm, tip pointed, Seeds are rectangular, shiny and brown in color.
The plant is useful in migraine, asthma, worm infection, insect bite and skin diseases. Seeds are used as the substitute of Coffee.
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Lal shonail or Pink shower ( Cassia javanica , family: Fabaceae) is a medium-sized deciduous tree with knotted and shortened trunk, attaining a height of 12-16 m. Bark is grey. Young shoots are silky. Its spreading branches sometimes almost touch the ground towards the peripherry. It is an ideal tree for planting in a large garden. It is found in the hilly forests of Sylhet and Chattogram in Bangladesh. As a beautiful ornamental tree, it is planted in parks, botanical gardens, gardens and roadsides in the country. It is also found in various tropical countries of Asia. At the beginning of summer, the canopy of the tree is covered with flowers in such a way that it looks as if a pink fountain is waiting to fall. In order to get colorful colors in summer, you have to plant this tree in the garden with Jarul , Krishnochura , Shonalu and Konokchura . Leaves are spectacular. These are compound, 12-24; leaflets elliptic-oblong, 2.5-4.5 cm and 2-3.5 cm wide. Flowers are scented, pink
Kulekhara or Talmakhna ( Hygrophila auriculata , family: Acanthaceae) is a stout and erect herb with straight and undivided stem. The spiny plant is very popular as a medicinal plant in Bangladesh as well as the Indian subcontinent. Other names: Kulekkha, Kuiley-rekha, Kanta kalika, Shoolmordon. Leaves are lanceolate, subsessile, acute at both ends with long whitish hairs, dense with straight and stout thorns that grow from each node. Outer leaves are longer than the inner ones. Both leaves and thorns remain in upward direction. Flowers in axillary whorls. They are bright violet or bluish purple and red, sometimes whitish with soft and minor hair, corolla 2-lipped. Flower blooms in the winter. Fruit a capsule, 4-8-seeded. Seeds are ovoid (not in the pic). The body of the plant contains alkaloids, phytosterols, stigmasterol, lupeol and essential oils. Its seeds contain oil, enzymes and sterols. The plant is cooling and diuretic in cases of h