Jambura or Pomelo (Citrus grandis, family: Rutaceae) a small tree with branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The bark of the leafy and much branching tree is grey. It is originated probably in Thailand or Malaysia. It is found in the Southeast Asia nowadays. It is planted as homestead tree in rural areas of Bangladesh.
Other names: Batabi lebu, Jamir.
Leaves are deep green, elliptical-ovate, 8-15 cm long and 6-10 cm wide, slightly dented. Petiole has stipules. And by this characteristic the plant can be identified easily. Like all other members of citrus family, the sweet scent from the leaves is available.
Flowers are bright white, with 5 petals. They are sweet-scented. Where the flower blooms, the whole premise is filled with the honey scent. Numerous stamens surround pistil in the middle of the flower. It flowers in summer and produces fruit in rainy season.
The juicy fruit is very big, 12-25 cm in diameter, almost a size of football, weighing 1-2 kg. The rural boys play football with this fruit. When raw it is green, and yellow when ripe. The pulp is whitish, reddish or yellowish. It tastes quite sour, slightly sweet too. In a single tree, hundred of fruits can be found together!
The fruit contains a lot of vitamin C and prevent many diseases. Ripe fruits contain a large amount of pectin. So delicious jam, jelly, pickles are made from the fruits. The plant is propagated by seeds or air-layering.
Jambura is a iconic fruit of rainy season in Bangladesh. By the by, it is the largest fruit among the Citrus family.
Hijol or Indian oak ( Barringtonia acutangula , family: Lecythidaceae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree, native to riverine Bangladesh. This water-loving tree is found in the wetlands of Bangladesh. In rural areas, it can be seen standing in the water like Koronja . Common names: Hijal, Hijangal, Hendol. Leaves are short petioled, serrated, 7-12 cm long and 3-7 cm wide, crowded at the end of the branches. Flowers are small, pink to red, sub-sessile, purple red with numerous stamens. Inflorescence is 20-30 cm long, pendulous raceme, flower openning from top to downwards. The 4-merous flowers are grouped in long & pendulous racemes up to 20-30 cm long. The cup-shaped calyx is light green in color. Flowers bloom in April-May. In the winter Its bark has tannin which is useful for heart diseases. Powder of seeds works expectorant and applied to cure cough of children. Tonic is prepared from leaves and roots. Fish poison is also prepared from its roots
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Kulekhara or Talmakhna ( Hygrophila auriculata , family: Acanthaceae) is a stout and erect herb with straight and undivided stem. The spiny plant is very popular as a medicinal plant in Bangladesh as well as the Indian subcontinent. Other names: Kulekkha, Kuiley-rekha, Kanta kalika, Shoolmordon. Leaves are lanceolate, subsessile, acute at both ends with long whitish hairs, dense with straight and stout thorns that grow from each node. Outer leaves are longer than the inner ones. Both leaves and thorns remain in upward direction. Flowers in axillary whorls. They are bright violet or bluish purple and red, sometimes whitish with soft and minor hair, corolla 2-lipped. Flower blooms in the winter. Fruit a capsule, 4-8-seeded. Seeds are ovoid (not in the pic). The body of the plant contains alkaloids, phytosterols, stigmasterol, lupeol and essential oils. Its seeds contain oil, enzymes and sterols. The plant is cooling and diuretic in cases of h