Apang or Prickly chafflower (Achyranthes aspera, family: Amaranthaceae) is an annual herb with woody base, 1-1.5 m height. Terete to quadrangular stem is straight, hairy and not much-branched. It is considered as a crop weed in the country.
Other names: Biral achra, Bilai-khami, Chirchita, Upot lyangra, Bilai-khamchi (Bangla); Snake tail (English).
Leaves are green, simple, ovate-oblong, 10-12 cm long and 6-7 cm wide, opposite, short-petioled.
Flowers are small, green, on terminal spike inflorescence. Stamens 5, pistils 5. The inflorescence is 10-40 cm long, hard with stipules. Flowering occurs in late autumn.
Fruit is nutlet, hard with wings. Seeds are brown, sub-cylindrical. It is propagated by seeds. Dry seeds can spread in other ways besides the help of wind. By touching human or animals body they spread far beyond too.
The erect herb is a well-known folk medicinal plant in Indian subcontinent. It is mentioned in the ancient Ayurveda scriptures. Its decoction is used in stangury, dysentery, diarrhea, rheumatism, hydrophobia, jaundice, heart and skin diseases. It is also used in the worship of Hindu religion. It is found everywhere, especially in fallow land in Bangladesh. It is found in tropical and subtropical parts of the world too.
Makal or Mahakal ( Trichosanthes tricuspidata , family: Cucurbitaceae) is a woody climber with tendril and branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The multiangular-branched plant climbs up very far by holding any tree in the forest. It is found in the hilly areas as well as plain forests and village thickets in Bangladesh. It is also found in Indian subcontinent, Australia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia. According to ancient Sanskrit scriptures the other names of the plant are Bishala, Mohendro-baruni. In the Himalayas it has been seen at an altitude of 5000 feet. There are many refferences to the fruit in Bangla and Sanskrit literature. Someone is very nice to look at but he/she is useless--writers usually jokingly give examples of this fruit. Its roots and attractive fruits are packed with medicinal properties. The size and shape of leaves may vary. These are multilobed or trilobed, alternate, rough in both sides, 5-12 cm long, petioled, cor
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Bon-jui or Glory bower ( Volkameria inermis , Lamiaceae) is a semi-erect beautiful mangrove shrub, attaining a height of 3-4 m. The salt-tolerant plant's stem is woody. Yong shoots, petiols, leaf blades are usually glabrous but sometimes covered with minutely hairs. Its geographical extent is quite large. It can be found in the countries of East Asia as well as South and Southeast Asia. It can also be found in Australia and Pacific Islands, such as New Guinea too. In Bangladesh, the flowering plant is found standing beside the muddy, wet and saline soils of cannals and other waterbodies of mangrove forests or edge of mangrove forests. In the country, it has long been planted as an ornamental shrub along roadsides and road islans. In some places it is also used as a hedge in gardens. Other names: Koklota, Bakri, Batraj, Chitka bhat (Bang); Garden quinine, Seaside clerodendron. The shrub's richness is due to the leaves. These are quite beautiful. Leaf blades are entir