Bangladesh is a rich land of biodiversity. About 6000 species of plants are gathered in such a small area of 147570 sq km.
I am trying to introduce the flora of Bangladesh in a pack from the naturalist view, not from the eye of plant-expert. For this, there will be some unwanted mistakes.
Needless to say, pics used in this site are all original and snapped by me. The information are gathered here from the personal notes, collected books and from different websites.
Bel or Wood apple, Eegle marmelos
Bel or Wood apple (Aegle marmelos, Rutaceae) is a spiny deciduous tree with many branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. Bark is grey, soft. The tree has been regarded as sacred plant to Hindu community. The medium-sized tree is a very popular homestead tree.
It has been planted in Hindu temples in the subcontinent for thousand of years. The leafy tree can be planted by roads and highways and in park and gardens as an ornamental plant.
Leaves are tri-foliate, wild-scented, alternate, green. There are hard thorns at the bottom of leaves. Leaves fall off in summer. Leaflet is lanceolate, 8-10 cm long and 4-6 cm wide.
Flowers are white with greenish touch, bisexual, sweet-scented. Petals 4, fleshy, calyx shortened, stamens numerous. Flowers bloom in March-May.
Fruits are round, big, woody, edible, sweet-scented. The fruit matures for almost 8 months after the flowering occurs. Propagation is by seeds.
It has a valuable medicinal use. The fruit is nutritious and stomachic. Leaves are effective in cold. Raw fruit can cure blood dysentery and ripe fruit can cure constipation.
Juice from ripe fruit is very popular in Bangladesh as well as Indian subcontinent. The wood is yellowish or whitish. It can be easily polished.
The insects are very crazy abour the Bel flowers!
Bilvah is the Sanskrit name of the plant. The trifoliate leaves are the must used matter to Hindu worship.
Rubber bot or Indian rubber ( Ficus elastica , family: Moraceae) is a medium or large evergreen tree with aerial prop roots grow from its branches. The fig tree with milky latex in its leaves and shoots can get a height of more than 30 meters. The trunk is smooth, black-colored and has very tiny whitish spots. This tree is well-known as an ornamental plant. In Bangladesh, it is found on roadside area or the edge of forest and in parks and gardens. The beautiful tree is native to South and Southeast Asia. Leaves are spectacular, simple, big, leathery, deep green, sometimes deep purplish, shiny and smooth, elliptic-ovate, 12-30 cm long and 5-12 cm wide, petioled, alternate, acuminate at the top. Florets remain inside the fruit or fig which cannot be seen from outside. Fruiting occurs in the late spring. Fruits develop in the nodes of the Fruits. They usually round, sometimes slender in shape. Mature fruits are yellow or red in color. The plant is propagated by
Makal or Mahakal ( Trichosanthes tricuspidata , family: Cucurbitaceae) is a woody climber with tendril and branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The multiangular-branched plant climbs up very far by holding any tree in the forest. It is found in the hilly areas as well as plain forests and village thickets in Bangladesh. It is also found in Indian subcontinent, Australia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia. According to ancient Sanskrit scriptures the other names of the plant are Bishala, Mohendro-baruni. In the Himalayas it has been seen at an altitude of 5000 feet. There are many refferences to the fruit in Bangla and Sanskrit literature. Someone is very nice to look at but he/she is useless--writers usually jokingly give examples of this fruit. Its roots and attractive fruits are packed with medicinal properties. The size and shape of leaves may vary. These are multilobed or trilobed, alternate, rough in both sides, 5-12 cm long, petioled, cor
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis