Showing posts from April, 2016

Sthol-padma, Confederate rose, Hibiscus mutabilis

Sthol-padma or Confederaterose (Hibiscus mutabilis, family: Malvaceae) is a wonderful Perennial hibiscus that comes from China. The deciduous plant is introduced to Bangladesh as well as Indian sub-continent and USA. This fast growing woody shrub can grow up to 3 meter tall. 

Common Name: Sthol-padma, Sthalkamal, Confederate rose, Dixie rosemallow, Cotton rosemallow.

Leaves are simple, alternate, deeply cordate, 3-5 lobed, 8-15 cm long, hairy on both surfaces, petiole long.

The flowers of hibiscus mutabilis are large or small, double or single, 9-18cm in across. white, red or pink. It is called 'changeable rose' as it changes color with the change of time.

Flower blooms in September-December. Propagation is caused by cutting and air layering.

Leaves and flowers of hibiscus mutabilis are are used in piles, abortion and urinary problems. Extract of root is used in menstrual problem.

Kakmachi or Black nightshade, Solanum nigum

Kaakmachi orBlack nightshade(Solanum nigrum, family: Solanaceae) is a perennial herb with soft stem and many branches. It is native to Eurasia and introduced to the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world.

Common names: Black nightshade, Garden nightshade

Fruit is a berry, smooth, 5-7 cm in diametre; green and bitter when raw and black or purplish black. In Bangladesh and Indian subcontinent another variety is found with berries that turn yellowish red when ripe. Ripe berries are attractive but poisonous. 

The flowers are small, pure white, clustered.

Solanum nigrum is used in ulcer, piles, fever, vomiting, swelling, urinery and liver diseases.

Ashoth, Bodhi tree, Ficus religiosa

Ashoth, Ashwatha orBodhi tree(Ficus religiosa, family: Moraceae) is a gigantic and very aggressive tree. This deciduous tree holds well-spread crown & has irregularly shaped trunk. The tree is originally found in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand. It is introduced to Israel and USA.      Common names: Pippala, Peepal, Ashwattha Formation oleaves
In Ramna Park (Dhaka) a centennial Oshoth tree is the center of attraction of the festival of Pohela Boishakh (Bangla new year) arranged by Chhayanaut. 
During the festival of Pohela Boishakh

Deciduous ficus religiosa gives reddish new foliage in the spring (March).
Fruits are fig, develop in pair on leaf axil, sessile, sub-globose, depressed & pink when ripe. Small unisexual flowers remain inside fig. 

It can grow everywhere in Bangladesh. It can be found on roof or window-shade of a building, in waterside area, on roadside or a huge trunk or stem of a tree. 

Leaves are alternate, broad-ovate, 10-20 cm long with acuminate apex …

Jilapi Babul, Blackbeed tree, Pithecellobium dulce

Jilapi Babul or Blackbeed tree (Pithecellobium dulce, family: Leguminosae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree with pofused branches and spreading crown. The tree can reach a height of 10-15 m. Trunk is spiny. Bark is grey. The tree is native to Americas. It is introduced to South and Southeast Asia. 

Common names: Khoia babla, Jilapi babul, Jilapi, Dokkhini babul, Blackbeed tree, Manila tamarind.

Leaves are bipinnate, each pinna has a single pair of ovate-oblong leaflets. Young leaves are brownish. In Bangladesh flower blooms in spring, They are small, fragrant, greenish-white, 1 cm in diameter, borne in globose head. 

The edible fruit is a pod, 10-15 cm long. When ripe (in summer) it turns tightly-coiled shape and reddish-brown in color and this is the main characteristic of the tree. Fruit tastes sweet and sour. Seeds are shiny, black in color. 

Leaves and raw fruits are used as cattle fodder. Bark is used in fever.

The tree is drought resistant and can survive in dry lands. It is suitable…

Bhat, Hill glory bower, clerodendrum viscosum

Bhat orHill glory bower (Clerodendrum viscosum, family: Verbenaceae) is an annual shrub attaining a height of 2-4  metre. It grows on fallow land as weed everywhere in Bangladesh. It is also found in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world particularly in Bangladesh & India.
Common names: Bhat, Ghetu, Bhatphul, Hill glory bower
Hill glory bower flowers are white, scented, borne on terminal panicle. Sepals 5, light green, petals 5. Lower parts of petals are brushed with red color. Stamens are much longer than petals. Flowering occurs in spring.

Leaves are big, dark green, petioled, ovate-lanceolate, 5-10 cm long & 2.5 -7 cm. wide, alternate. 

Fruit is a drupe, purplish blue, 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter.

The plant is used in malaria, chronic fever, skin disease, pain, insect bite. In worm & louse infection it is also used.

Lutki, Malabar melastome, Melastoma malabathricum

Lutki or Malabar melastome (Melastoma malabathricum, family: Melastomataceae) is a perennial shrub found in tropical and sub-tropical Asia. It is a common plant of Sal forest and the hilly areas of Bangladesh. The evergreen shrub is found throughout South and Southeast Asia.

Common names: Lutki, Datranga, Tea indicator plant, Malabar melastome, Indian rhododendron.

This shrub can reach a height of 1-2 meter high. The quadrangular and reddish stems are covered with small rough hair. 

The leaves are ovate,-elliptic, or elliptic-lanceolate, 7-20 cm long with three ribs, hairy. The petiole 1-2 cm long.

The nice looking shrub flowers throughout the year. Flowers are big, showy, purple in color, grows on terminal inflorescences. Petals 5, sepals 5, stamens 10. The edible fruit is a berry; globose, 5-13 mm long and 4-10 mm wide, succulent, dehiscent.

As a wild fruit children eat this tasty berry and color their mouths black frequently. The genus name of the plant 'melastoma' is named …

Champa, champaca, Magnolia champaca

Champa or champaca (Magnolia champaca, family: Magnoliaceae) is a medium or large-sized evergreen tree with silky young shoot, grows to 50 m or taller. It is very popular in Bangladesh and India, especially in the Great Bengal area. This beautiful fragrant flowering tree is also native to South and Southeast Asia.

Leaves are simple, lanceolate, light green, smooth and shiny above; 16-25 cm long and 5 cm wide. The petiole is about 2.5 cm long. Strongly scented flowers are solitary, showy, pale yellow or golden, 3-7 cm across. Petals 15, free, acute at the end. Blooming season is summer (April-May) and it continues up to June-July. Propagation is caused by seeds.

A bunch of fruits rise from single stick. Seeds are dark brown or blackish red. 

Flower, fruit and leaf are used for skin diseases, round worms and snake bites. Decoction of leaves is analgesic and diaphoretic.

A rare variety of white color magnolia champaca is also found in Bangladesh─Magnolia×alba, also known as the White champ…

Bon-tepari or Angular winter cherry, Physalis angulata

Bon-tepari or Angular winter cherry (Physalis angulata, family: Solanaceae) is an annual herb attaining a height of 30-40 cm. The plant is originated in Americas. It has become naturalized throughout the tropical world.

Common names: Angular winter cherry, Bon-tepari, Gooseberry, Hogweed, Wild tomato.

Leaves are light green, ovate-oblong, acute, 6-12 cm long and 4-5.7 cm wide.

Flowers are solitary, pale yellow in color.

Fruit is round, remain inside a balloon-like calyx.

Physalis angulata is a very common weed that grows in fallow land, roadside jungle and croplands in Bangladesh. Seeds are used in the treatment of gonorrhea. Fruits are energizing and diuretic.

Hijol, Indian oak, Barringtonia acutangula

Hijol orIndian oak(Barringtonia acutangula, family: Lecythidaceae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree, native to riverine Bangladesh. This water-loving tree is found in the wetlands of Bangladesh. In rural areas, it can be seen standing in the water like Koronja
Common names: Hijal, Hijangal, Hendol.

Leaves are short petioled, serrated, 7-12 cm long and 3-7 cm wide, crowded at the end of the branches.

Flowers are small, pink to red, sub-sessile, purple red with numerous stamens. Inflorescence is 20-30 cm long, pendulous raceme, flower openning from top to downwards. The 4-merous flowers are grouped in long & pendulous racemes up to 20-30 cm long. The cup-shaped calyx is light green in color. Flowers bloom in April-May.  In the winter
Its bark has tannin which is useful for heart diseases. Powder of seeds works expectorant and applied to cure cough of children. Tonic is prepared from leaves and roots. Fish poison is also prepared from its roots. 

Fruit is berry, green, 3-5 cm long , 4-…

Shirish or Lebbek tree, Albizia lebbeck

Shirish or Lebbek tree (Albizia lebbeck, family: Fabaceae) is a large deciduous tree with spreading crown, attaining a height of 15-20 m. The black bark tree is native to Bangladesh as well as Southeast Asia and Australia.
Common names: Shirish, Siris, Kalo koroi, Lebbek tree, Frywood.

Leaves bipinnate with a large gland on the base of petiole, pinnae 2-5 pairs. Leaflets 2.5-4 cm long and 1.5-2 cm wide, ovate, oblong, pale green. Flowers bloom in April-June. 

Flowers are very fragrant, greenish white, heads globose, containing many flowers. Stamens are longer than petals and sepals.

The fruit is a legume, 12-30 cm long and 2-5 cm wide. It contains 6-12 seeds. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. Albizia lebbeck is a good timber tree, fast growing and suitable for a forestation. Bark prevents skin diseases and leaf night blindness. It is also useful in tuberculosis, diarrhea and leprosy.

Ghora-neem, China berry tree, Melia azedarach

Ghora-neem or China berry tree (Melia azedarach, family: Meliaceae) is a medium-sized deciduous tree from the family of Neem (azadirachta indica). New shoots come out from mutilated bare trunk. This blackish barked tree is native to South and Southeast Asia and Australia. This short-living but fast growing tree abounds in Bangladesh, especially in the northern region. 
Common names: Ghora-neem, Bokain, Moha-neem, China berry tree, White cedar, Cape lilac, Persian lilac
Flowers are small and lilac in color. Plethora of flowers bloom on axillary inflorescence. The number of sepals and petals in a flower is 5. 

Fruit a drupe, globose, dry fruits are brown in color. Propagation of plant is caused by seeds.

Leaves are dark green, compound, ovate-lanceolate and serrate. Flowers are fragrant and bloom in the summer in Bangladesh.

It is a good herbal plant. Branch, leaf and bark are used as medicine to relieve tooth and gum pain. These are also useful for eye and ear diseases, face spots and lepro…