Ulu or Cogon grass, Imperata cylindrica

Ulu or Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica, family: Poaceae) is a beautiful perennial grass with cylindrical and solid stem and creeping rhizomes, attaining a height of 1 m. The herb is one of the most beautiful flowering plants of Bangladesh. The water-loving grass is found all over Bangladesh. Its original home is Indian subcontinent.  Other names: Ulu-ghash, Ulu-khor, Lalong, Shon, Chhon, Chhau, Sarkanda.
Leaves are green, rough, linear-lanceolate, 20-50 cm long with pointed apex. 
Flowers are pure white, silky, on spike inflorescence. Although the initial color of the flower is purple-white, it gradually changes to shiny white. It blooms from rainy season to autumn. 

Fruits are caryopsis, winged. Fruits and flowers can be seen at a time on different plants. It is propagated by rhizomes and seeds. 

When they bloom over a large area, a truly eye-catching scene unfolds. Only Kaash (Saccharum spontaneum) can be compared to its blossoming.

It is used in diabetes and gonorrhoea. It is also used…

Isshormul or Indian Birthwort, Aristolochia indica

Isshormul or Indian Birthwort (Aristolochia indica, family: Aristolochiaceae) is a perennial woody climber, rising from woody rootstock. Its twinning branches are soft with soft hair. In fallow land, road-side, canal-side and bushes, the plant can be seen climbing up by twisting each other's branches or leaning on something. It is found in Dhaka, Moymonsingho, Rajshahi and in Sundorbon in Bangladesh. The original home of the plant is the Indian subcontinent. Other names: Issher mul, Issher muli, Isher mul; Rudro-jota, Isshori, Roudri, Shugondha, Rudro-lota, Potro-bolli (Sanskrit).Leaves are fiddle-shaped, lanceolate, grooved, 2-4 cm long and 1-2 cm wide, apex curved and pointed. Flowers are greenish white, tubular, deep throated, borne on axillary racemes. The mouth of the flower is quite enlarged to attract insects perhaps. Fruit is about 2.5 cm long with flat, winged and triangular seeds. Flowering time is June to October. The plant is propagated by seeds. Root and leaves are us…

Turut chondal or Telegraph plant, Desmodium motorium

Turut chondal or Telegraph plant (Desmodium motorium, family: Fabaceae) is a shrub with branches and attractive leaves, attaining a height of 2 m. It naturally grows in different districts Bangladesh. It is also found in the countries of South and Southeast Asia. Like Lojjaboti (Touch me not), the leaves of the plant can move and that can be seen with the naked eye. Renowned Bengali scientist Jagadish Chandra Bose proved by experimenting on this plant that the plant also has life. Seeing the movement of the leaves, he may have become interested in this research.
Common names : Turuchondal, Turichondal, Bonchondal, Gorachan.

Leaves are pale green, sometimes trifoliate with white shade along the midrib; Treminal leaflet is much longer and thicker than other two, 5-7 cm long and 2-2.5 cm wide. The most notable feature of the plant is that its tiny leaves of each pinna can move. This may be to get more sunlight.

Flowers are pale orange. Thesee bloom in spring (Feb-Mar). 

Fruit is a pod, 3-5 c…

Gima-shak or Pot-biroot, Glinus oppositifolius

Gima-shak or Pot-biroot (Glinus oppositifolius, family: Molluginaceae) is an annual herb with diffiuse branches and taproot. Stems can be 3 to 40 cm long. Young shoots and branches are silky and sometimes reddish. It is found in waterside area, cropfield, fallow land and damp places in Bangladesh. It occasionally grows on old walls. It is found in the tropical Asia, Africa and in Australia too. 

Leaves are 1-2.5 cm long, elliptic-oblanceolate, petioled, opposite.

Flowers are tiny, white in color, showy, 0.4 cm long, petals 5, stamens 5-10. The flower buds are reddish.

Fruits are ellipsoid, reddish or brownish, 4-5 mm, 3-valved; seeds numerous. The plant is propagated by sedds. 

It can be planted as an ornamenal plant in tub or pot. It is eaten as vegetables in Bangladesh. It is used in constipation, indigestion, itching? and various kinds of skin diseases. By the by, like many other herbs the color of the whole plant is occasionally reddish.

Lal shonail or Pink shower, Cassia javanica

Lal shonail or Pink shower (Cassia javanica, family: Fabaceae) is a medium-sized deciduous tree with knotted and shortened trunk, attaining a height of 12-16 m. Bark is grey. Young shoots are silky.Its spreading branches sometimes almost touch the ground towards the peripherry. It is an ideal tree for planting in a large garden. 

It is found in the hilly forests of Sylhet and Chottogram in Bangladesh. As a beautiful ornamental tree, it is planted in parks, botanical gardens, gardens and roadsides in the country. It is also found in various tropical countries of Asia. 

At the beginning of summer, the canopy of the tree is covered with flowers in such a way that it looks as if a pink fountain is waiting to fall. In order to get colorful colors in summer, you have to plant this tree in the garden with Jarul, Krishnochura, Shonalu and Konokchura.

Leaves are spectacular. These are compound, 12-24; leaflets elliptic-oblong, 2.5-4.5 cm ang 2-3.5 cm wide. 

Flowers are scented, pink or reddish, 2 …

Kushum or Ceylon oak, Schleichera oleosa

Kushum or Ceylon oak (Schleichera oleosa, family: Sapindaceae) is a large-sized deciduous tree with spreading canopy and huge trunk, attaining a height up to 40 m. The diameter of the trunk can be up to 2 meters. Bark is grey and smooth. The leaves fall at the end of winter and new leaves come in spring. The leaves are surprisingly red. 
Other names: Joyna, Lakkha, Gum tree, Honey tree.

This giant tree can be easily recognized by shiny red leaves. The fruits look a lot like Lotkon and are called by this name somewhere. It can be seen scattered in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts including the northern part of the country. It is originated in the Southeast region of Asia, especially in India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. 

Leaves are compound, sessile; leaflets elliptic-obovate, 4-20 cm long and 3-9 cm wide, opposite. The extraordinary young leaves are brilliant red in color. These are seen several times a year.

Raceme inflorescence 6-15 cm long. Flowers are greenish yellow, without petals. …

Boro kolkashundey or Western senna, Senna occidentalis

Boro kolkashundey or Western senna (Senna occidentalis, family: Fabaceae) is an erect annual or sometimes perennial herb, attaining a height of 1-2 m. Stem and branches are usually reddish and are angular with linear mark. In Bangladesh it grows on fallow land, along roadsides and around the railways. As an ornamental plant it can be planted in gardens and parks.   Other names: Boro halkishunda, Tuli-koroi.

Leaves are compound, paripinnate, leaflet 3-8 pairs, elliptic-lanceolate, 3-10 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, green with reddish midrib, soft hairs and pointed tip. A pungent odor comes out when the leaves are crushed.   

Flowers are bright yellow, raceme, arising at the leaf axil, 3 cm wide, short peduncled, a few together or a pair. Sepals 5, petals 5. It blooms mainly in May-July. Full blooming flowers can be seen in the morning.

Fruits are pods, quite long, 8-14 cm long, tip blunted, 4-5 together, minutely hairy, dehiscent. Seeds 25-30. Flowers and fruits can be seen at a time in differe…