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Dudhia or Shet kerui, dentella repens

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Dudhia or Shet kerui (dentella repens, family: rubiaceae) is an annual herb with soft slender stem. It creeps along the ground and spreads around. Leaves are entire, thick and juicy, elliptic but pointed at both ends, 1 cm long. 
Other local names : Shadaphuli, Shada jabri, Bhuipat.

Funnel-shaped flowers are solitary, small, nearly sessile, petals 5-lobed, 1 cm long, absolute white in color. Flowers bloom in the rainy season. 

It is grown as weed on fallow land and at the edge of water bodies. The plant helps to prevent erosion of land. By the by, the plant's species name `repens' means spreading or creeping.

Lal verenda, jatropha gossypifolia

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Lal verenda (jatropha gossypifolia, family : euphorbiaceae) is a shrub with adhesive on whole body attaining a height of 1-2 m. The plant's whole body-color is reddish and its young leaves are the same. For this reason it is called Lal verenda in Bangla.

Leaves are palmately compound, 3-lobbed, each 10-2 cm long, blackish red (matures are greenish), viscose, long petioled. Flower blooms in rainy season. They are small, red, clustered in terminal panicle. Sepals 5, petals 5.

Immature fruit is green, yellow when ripe, 3-chambered. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. The plant is full of herbal qualities. Oil extracted from it is used in pain. 

Genus name gossypifolia means cotton-like leaves.

Keshordam, ludwigia adscendens

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Keshordam (ludwigia adscendens, family: onagraceae) is water plant with soft and juicy stem,. It grows on water or on the edge of water bodies. A kind of spongy root gives it the facility of floating on water, Leaves are shinny green, glabrous, 2.5-5 cm long, apex obtuse. Flowers are white, petals 5, wide open, bottom yellow. Flowers bloom in the rainy season. 

Propagation of the plant is caused by seed and cutting. In Bangladesh the plant is found in ponds, canals, beels and jheels along with Shapla, Kolmilota and Chadmala. It is used in epilepsy, hysteria and other neurotic and nervous diseases.

Shapla, Water Lily, nymphaea nouchali

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Shapla or Water Lily (nymphaea nouchali, family: nymphaeceae) is a common water plant and national flower of Bangladesh as well as Sri Lanka. The plant grows from underwater soil. Petiole is very very long : 60-70 cm. Leaves are round or ovate, floating on water, 15-45 cm long, edge dentate and wavy, upper side bright green and lower side reddish violet. 

Flower is white, bluish white or bluish viiolet. Sepals 4, elliptical-ovate, persistent, 3-9 cm long, outer side green, vertically striped; inner side bluish white. Numerous stamens surrounded the pistil at the centre of flower. Flower usually blooms at night during rainy season. 
Fruit is globose, glabrous, with granular seeds inside. It is found in ponds, canals, beels and jheels everywhere of Bangladesh as well as Indian subcontinent. It is locally called `Shaluk' also.

It is used in dysentery, cough, vomiting, fever, gall and heart diseases. It helps the growth of sperm and breast milk. Seeds are fried to make `khoi', wh…

Konokchura, peltophorum pterocarpum

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Konokchura (peltophorum pterocarpum, family : fabaceae) is a medium-sized deciduous tree with profuse foliage, reaching up to 18 m in height. Its main trunk is steep, gray and smooth. The branches are divided into many parts, densely adjusted and shadowy.

Dark green leaves are small, elliptic, pinnately compound, rachis 30-45 cm long. In summer, full canopy cover with yellow flowers. Flowers are brilliant yellow, clustered on terminal inflorescence. Sepal 5, petals 5. Flowers are very fragrant.

The fruit is flattened, copper-colored, a lot like a shield, long lasting. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. Saplings can be easily made from seeds.

Its original home is Andaman Archipelago, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Australia. It is a fast growing tree. So it is suitable for planting trees as a flower tree. It is planted in gardens and on roadside as an ornamental tree in Bangladesh. The tree is seen in the roads and parks in Dhaka. Its log is used as firewood. Wood is also used to m…

Shegun, Teak, tectona grandis

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Shegun or Teak (tectona grandis, family : verbenaceae) is a lofty deciduous slow growing tree up to 25-30 m of height with few branches at the top and fluted trunk at the base. It is a tree of South and Southeast Asia. 
The tree is highly valued for its superb timber used to make different kinds of furniture. Teak is one of the best woods in the world. Like other countries it is planted as a ommercial tree in Bangladesh. However, it is also planted in the park, botanical gardens as an ornamental tree. The beautiful tree can be planted by rows on the highway.

In winter it leaves its leaves completely. New leaves grow in the beginning of spring. Leaves are opposite, broadly elliptic, pointed at the end, 20-70 cm long, green, rough above, yellowish beneath, hairy. In the rainy season, white-colored and fragrant flowers cover the entire canopy. Flowers are small, borne on the large terminal panicle. Panicle is seen to be 1-3 feet tall. 

The fruit is quadrangular, 3 cm in diameter; bark is …

Ashari-lota or Asaria, capparis zeylanica

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Ashari-lota or Asaria (capparis zeylanica, family : capparaceae) is a thorny woody profusely branched creeper. The plant grows on fallow land, especially in damp jungle in Bangladesh.

Other Bangla names : Kalokra, Kalkeya, Kelekra.

Leaves are simple, green, petioled, alternate, ovate, 4.5-7.5 cm and 3-4 cm wide. Flowers are white to pink, borne on axillary lateral inflorescence. Sepals 8, arranged in two layers. Stamens numerous, look like a cat's mustache, gradually change color from white to pink to deep pink. Flower blooms in February-March. Fruit is a berry, smooth, 5-7 cm long. The seeds remain inside in circular form. It gives fruit in the rainy season. The propagation is caused by the seeds. The fruit is edible. Crow likes it.

There are hard and curved spines on its body. Leaves are used in piles, blister and tumour. Roots are used in pain, jaundice, tuberculosis, bone fracture and liver diseases. 
The plant has been mentioned in Charak-Sushruta. So it can be surely said tha…