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Chalmugra or Dalmugri, hydnocarpus kurzii

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Chalmugra or Dalmugri (hydnocarpus kurzii, family: flacourtiaceae) is a small to medium-sized tree having brownish hair in young parts. The tree can be up to 15 meters tall. Bark is almost brown. Wood is very hard. It is mostly found in the hilly areas of greater Chottogram and greater Sylhet forests. The tree is also found in South and South Asia.

Leaves are simple, green in color, oblong-lanceolate, 15-25 cm long 4-10 cm wide, apex acute, alternate, petioled, entire or undulate edge. 
Flowers are pale yellow, single or clustered, pretty fragrant.. Flower blooms in the spring. 

Fruit is ball-shaped, uneven, grey, hard, fleshy, 5-10 cm in diametre. Seeds 2-3, 2-2.5 cm long.



The propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. The evergreen  tree with beautiful drooping branches can be planted as an avenue tree. 


It is mentioned in Ayurveda as Tubrak. Seed oil is used in intestinal gas, worm, diabetes and skin diseases like eczema and leprosy and is also used for burning. Sometimes its frui…

Bajna or Cape yellowwood, zanthoxylum rhets

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Bajna or Cape yellowwood (zanthoxylum rhetsa, family: rutaceae) is a medium-sized or large deciduous tree with numerous branches. It can get a height of 10-13 m. The whole trunk and old branches are covered with strong prickles. The bark is thick and yellow.

Other names: Bajinali, Kata-horina, Tambul.


Despite being thorny, it is quite a beautiful tree and can be planted as an ornamental plant beside roads and in parks and gardens. 

In Bangladesh it is found in hilly areas Shal forests. The tree is also found in the countries of South and Southeast Asia.

Flowers are very small, pale yellow, borne at the tip of the branch. Flowering occurs in the summer.

Fruits are small, almost round, blackish when ripe. Each fruit has only one seed, which is black and bright. The propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.

Leaves are compound with 16-40 leaflets clustered at the end of the branches, opposite on rachis. Leaflets are ovate-lanceolate, 7-12 cm long, usually entire. Having the pellucid glands …

Porosh-pipul or Tulip tree, thespesia populnea

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Porosh-pipulor Tulip tree (thespesia populnea, family: malvaceae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree, attaining a height of 5-10 m with nice dense canopy. Bark is rough and grey in color. As an ornamental plant it can be planted beside roads. 

In fact it is one of the most beautiful trees of the Indian subcontinent. It is found in the coastal areas in Bangladesh as well as in Africa, tropical Asia, throughout India and Pacific Islands.

Other names: Porosh, Pakor, Pipul, Bolu (Bangla), Portia tree, Umbrella tree.

Leaves are deep green, simple, cordate, 15-18 cm long and 10-15 cm wide, alternate, petiole 4-10 cm long, upside is smooth, grey and fibrous beneath. 

Flowers are beautiful, big-sized, bell-shaped, solitary or in pair, about 8 cm across, pale yellow. Sepals 5, petals 5. 




Flowering occurs mainly in the summer, though flowers can be seen throughout the year. The flower is short-lived, that remain fresh just for one day and turns pink while fading. 




Fruit is a capsule, 2.5-3 cm across…

Braziler Paat or Brazil jute, malachra capitata

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Braziler Paat or Brazil jute (malachra capitata, family: malvaceae) is a useful tropical erect herb or undershrub with hairy body. Stem is slender and reddish. The leaves have also reddish marks at the edge. It can get a height of up to 2 m. The annual (or perennial) is found throughout the tropical regions of the world.
Other name: Bon vingdi.

The size and shape of the leaves may vary. It can be orbicular to suborbicular or ovate, many-lobed, cordate at base, blunt or acute at tip, edge serrated, alternate, 6-16 cm in diameter; long-petioled, almost the half of the length of leaf. Both sides of the leaf is hairy. The petiole is not directly connected to the blade but connected by creating angles to the bottom. 

Flowers usually in axillary heads, often also in terminal heads. Each head contains 2-5 bright yellow-colored flowers with white eye. There are 3-4 leafy bracts surrounding the flowers. Short-petioled flowers are cupular, 5-petaled. Petals are 2-3 times larger than sepals. Fru…

Kachchhara or Ceylon hydrolea, hydrolea zeylanica

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Kachchhara or Ceylon hydrolea (hydrolea zeylanica, family: hydrophyllaceae) is a trailing or semi-erect annual herb with branches. It can get a length of 30-40 cm. By the roots, produced from nodes, it survives on the ground. The branches are reddish and tomentose. 

Despite its beautiful flowers, it is still not popular among the gardeners of Bangladesh.

Other Banglaname: Ishanguli. 
Short-petioled leaves are simple, lanceolate, entire. Showy flowers borne in terminal or axillary inflorescence, subsessile. Petals 5, sepals 5, stamens 5. Sepals are lanceolate, pubescent, persistent. Flowering occurs in late autumn to winter (Oct-Jan). 

Fruit is a capsule, thin, transparent, globose, many-seeded. Propagation is caused by seeds. 

The plant is often used as fodder. The leaves have antiseptic properties that are used in wounds. The leaves are also used to the treatment of ulcer.

It is found in shallow water and ditches and as an weed in crop field throughout the country. The plant is also f…

Bain or Indian mangrove, avicennia officinalis

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Bain or Indian mangrove (avicennia officinalis, family: verbenaceae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree of Mangrove forest with breathing roots. It can get a height of 7-25 m. Young trees are usually bushy-natured and get a large crown. 

Bark is thin and smooth, pale green in color. It is mainly found on the riverbank and near the sea area of Sundarbans as well as the coasts and islands of South and Southeast Asia. The tree can be identified from a distance by seeing the abundance of fruits.  

Other names: Kala bain, Baen, Bani, Bol bain, Bina, Telia bain, Sagarodbhutah (Sanskrit). 

Leaves are thick, simple, entire, petiolate, ovoid-lanceolate, rounded at the end, 8-10 cm long and 3-4 cm wide, opposite, upper-part shiny green, yellowish brown beneath. Midrib is clearly seen, veins are unclear though.


Flowers borne in terminal inflorescence. They are bisexual, very small in size, yellow-orange, pungent. Petals 4, unequal, ovoid; stamen 4. Flowering occurs in the summer. Fruit is a capsul…

Chondromala or Crested floating-heart, nymphoides cristatum

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Chondromala, Kumudini or Crested floating-heart (nymphoides cristatum, family: menyanthaceae) is a aquatic flowering plant with long branches. The branches of the floating herb reach the surface of the water. Roots grow from nodes. 

It is a common aquatic plant of Bangladesh and found throughout the country's beel-jheel, canal and pond along with Water spinach, Keshordam (Creeping water primrose), Bladderwort and Alligator weed. It is also found in India, China and some countries of Southeast Asia.
Leaves are simple, orbicular, deeply cordate, purplish at the edge, veins are green and spread like nets.

The sepals is not adjacent to the petals, almost divided. Flowers are white with yellow centre, petals 5, adjacent, glabrous. Each lobe has a crest down the middle of each lobe.

Fruit is a capsule, broadly ovoid, subglobose. Seeds 10-20, pale yellowish brown.