Shinduri bij or Achiote, bixa orellana

Shinduri bij or Achiote (bixa orellana, family: bixaceae) is an evergreen shrub or small tree with few branches and dense foliage. Dye extracted from seed is used to color ointment. Its original home is tropical America. Red Indians paint their body and lips by the color obtain from its seeds.

Shinny leaves are green, heart-shaped with pointed apex, veins and midribs are clear; 10-18 cm long and 6-12 cm wide, alternate, petiole, 5-7 cm long. 

Flowers are very attractive, showy, purple-white, 5 cm across, borne on upright terminal panicles, 7-12 cm long; sepals 5, petals 5, with many stamens. Flower blooms in Autumn-winter.

Fruits are also attractive. They are globose, 3-5 cm across, covered with soft reddish prickles. Seeds covered with a thick red pulp which yields a valuable dye. Leaf, root and seed are used in preventing fever, gonorrhea, jaundice, dysentery and urinary problem. 

The plant is propagated by seeds. In Bangladesh it is planted in gardens and parks for fruits and also …

Roti, Jequirity, abrus precatorius

Roti, kuch or Jequirity (abrus precatorius, family: fabaceae) is a deciduous creeping woody herb. It grows naturally on fallow lands and beside canals and ponds. Nowadays it has been rare in Bangladesh. 

Leaves are compound; leaflets 10-20 cm on a rachis, opposite, tastes sweet. Blades are oblong, midrib clearly visible. Flowers are small, pinkish white. Flowers bloom in summer.

Fruits are bean-like. When the bean dried up, it burst. Seeds are round, brilliant red but have black mark at the top. All the seeds are almost of the same weight and shape. The extensive creeper is propagated by seeds.

Other names: Rotti, Rottika, Lalkuch, Roktokuch, Rokta, Shonakuri, Churamoni, Tamrika, Shangushtha, Gunja.

Roots and leaves are used in diarrhea, dysentery and skin diseases. it quenches thirst and causes perspiration. The seeds are used in abortion. Goldsmiths of the Indian subcontinent have been using seeds for measuring gold for thousands of years. The Santals women make beautiful jewelry …

Bottlebrush or Lemon bottlebrush, melaleuca citrina

Bottlebrush or Lemon bottlebrush (melaleuca citrina, family: myrtaceae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree with profuse branches, sometimes shrubby in nature and semi-deciduous or completely deciduous. It is famous for its beautiful drooping branches and brilliant red 'bottlebrush'-like flowers. 

Leaves are narrow, lanceolate, alternate, about 3-6 cm long and 1 cm wide, without pedicel, green or silvery green. Flowers are small and bloom on spike inflorescence. Stamens are dark red, numerous and bigger than petals. Flower appears round the year. Tiny fruits contain numerous seeds.

Propagation is by air layering and seeds. As decorative plant it is planted in the park and gardens in Bangladesh.

If crushed, leaves emit a kind of aroma that scented like lemon. That's why the species name of the plant is 'citrina'.

The leafy and gorgeous flowering tree is a must-planted tree in Indian subcontinent's parks and gardens as well as tropical gardens of the planet. By the…

Bon tamak, Wild tobacco, nicotiana plumbaginifolia

Bon tamak or Wild tobacco (nicotiana plumbaginifolia, family: solanaceae) is an erect herb with branches attaining a height of 60-70 cm. There are many branches below rather than the top.

Leaves look like tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) but smaller than that. Leaves are green in color, ovate-oblong or lanceolate-oblong, 25-30 cm long, hairy, viscose.

Flowers are white with light pink shade, corolla tubular, sepals 5, petals 5. Flower grows as single from leaf axil. Flower blooms round the year. The fruits are covered with 10 permanent veins. Seeds are small, black in color, upper part wrinkled. 

The hairy perennial plant is a medicinal one. Leaf, stem and seed are used in allergy, phlegm, asthma, rheumatism, worm and louse infection and eye disease.

They grows here and there, specially in sugarcane, corn and sesame fields and on the village street as weed in Bangladesh.

Dudhia or Shet kerui, dentella repens

Dudhia or Shet kerui (dentella repens, family: rubiaceae) is an annual herb with soft slender stem. It creeps along the ground and spreads around. Leaves are entire, thick and juicy, elliptic but pointed at both ends, 1 cm long. 
Other local names : Shadaphuli, Shada jabri, Bhuipat.

Funnel-shaped flowers are solitary, small, nearly sessile, petals 5-lobed, 1 cm long, absolute white in color. Flowers bloom in the rainy season. 

It is grown as weed on fallow land and at the edge of water bodies. The plant helps to prevent erosion of land. By the by, the plant's species name `repens' means spreading or creeping.

Lal verenda, jatropha gossypifolia

Lal verenda (jatropha gossypifolia, family : euphorbiaceae) is a shrub with adhesive on whole body attaining a height of 1-2 m. The plant's whole body-color is reddish and its young leaves are the same. For this reason it is called Lal verenda in Bangla.

Leaves are palmately compound, 3-lobbed, each 10-2 cm long, blackish red (matures are greenish), viscose, long petioled. Flower blooms in rainy season. They are small, red, clustered in terminal panicle. Sepals 5, petals 5.

Immature fruit is green, yellow when ripe, 3-chambered. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. The plant is full of herbal qualities. Oil extracted from it is used in pain. 

Genus name gossypifolia means cotton-like leaves.

Keshordam, ludwigia adscendens

Keshordam (ludwigia adscendens, family: onagraceae) is water plant with soft and juicy stem,. It grows on water or on the edge of water bodies. A kind of spongy root gives it the facility of floating on water, Leaves are shinny green, glabrous, 2.5-5 cm long, apex obtuse. Flowers are white, petals 5, wide open, bottom yellow. Flowers bloom in the rainy season. 

Propagation of the plant is caused by seed and cutting. In Bangladesh the plant is found in ponds, canals, beels and jheels along with Shapla, Kolmilota and Chadmala. It is used in epilepsy, hysteria and other neurotic and nervous diseases.