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Khudi pana or Minute duckweed, Lemna perpusilla

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Khudi pana  or  Minute duckweed  ( Lemna perpusilla , family: Araceae) is a free floating aquatic herb with cylindrical root sheath, found in pond, beel-jheel, ditches, cannals as well as all stagnant water bodies in Bangladesh. The flowering plant can be found in almost all parts of the world except deserts and polar regions. Other name : Kuti pana The leaves or fronds are ovate-obovate, green in color, ‍slightly slippery, asymmetric, blunt or acute at the both ends, each has single root. It propagates through buds. Flowers of the perennial are not often seen. Spadix inflorescence consists of 2 male and 1 female flowers. Fruit is asymmertric, ellipsoid. Seed has many longitudinal ribs.  It is used as poultry food. It is also a favorite food of fish. The interesting fact is, it keeps the water clean. The presence of this beautiful herb will enhance the beauty of the aquatic garden, no doubt. In many countries it is considered as weed of crop land.

Tokma or Pignut, Hyptis suaveolens

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Tokma or Pignut ( Hyptis suaveolens , family: Lamiaceae) is an annual herb with woody stem and profuse branches, attaining a height of 2 m. The whole body of the plant is filled with strong odor and minute hairs. It smells like Tulsi and is called Gonga tulsi or Bilati tulsi. The stem and branches are usually round but quadrangular when young. It is easily identifiable for its many characteristics.  Other names:  Tokmari, Gonga tulsi, Bilati tulsi; Chonga dana (Chakma).  The plant is not indigenous, but it has adapted very well to the country's condition. That is why it is found in the hilly area, as well as in fallow lands and along roadsides of the plains. The plant is indigenous to tropical America. Leaves are odorous, hairy, giving a velvety feel. The size and shape of the leaves vary. Its shape can be round, but most of the time it is quite triangular with cordial base; 2-12 cm long and 2-8 cm wide, with deep and irregularly toothed edges. Petiole is long.  Flowers are tiny,

Khet papra or Carpet-weed, Mollugo pentaphylla

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Khet papra or Carpet-weed ( Mollugo pentaphylla , family: Molluginaceae) is an annual herb with profuse branches, of about 30 cm height. It likes to lie on the ground after getting a little bigger in size. Its branches are usually smooth but occasionally hairy. Leaves are linear-oblong, 1-2 cm long. As a very common plant it is found in abundance in fallow lands, land isles and gardens in Bangladesh. It is also found in the South Asian countries. Flowers are tiny, pure white on umbel inflorescence, sepals 4, petals 4. Flower blooms in January-February. Fruit is round. When the fruit ripens, it looks a lot like Coriander. Fruiting and flowering occurs from monsoon to winter. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.  It is used to purify blood, relieve pain, quench thirst, destroy worm and eradicate cough and cold. It is also stomachic. It is eaten as vegetable somewhere.

Badur phul, Black bat flower, Tacca chantrieri

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Have you ever heard that flowers are ever black? Yes! However, it is not absolutely black, but from a distance it will seem black to you. Now let's get acquainted with the strange flower and the plant itself. Badur phul or Black bat flower (Tacca chantrieri, family: Taccaceae) is a perinnal rhizomatous herb, with very unusal black-colored and extraordinary shape of flowers, attaining a height of 60-70 cm. It is found in the hilly forests of Moulovibazar, Bandarban and Khagrachari in Bangladesh. In the wild, it can be seen growing on the slopes of the mountains under giant trees. It is also found in some tropical and subtropical countries of Southeast Asia.  Leaves are beautiful. These are large, pale green, wavy, clustered; petiole long. Flower is beautiful with exceptional shape. It is deepest purple or dark maroon with deep violet bracts, borne at the top of long peduncle. Stamens are basipetal and 30 cm long. It produces flowers almost all the year round. Each flower lasts for 5

Bohera or Belleric myrobalan, Terminalia bellirica

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Bohera or Belleric myrobalan ( Terminalia bellirica , family: Combretaceae) is a large deciduous tree with numerous spreading branches, attaining a height of 30 to 40 m. Trunk is straght. Bark is thick and deep grey in color. Widely heard ‘Triphala’ is a mixture of Horitki ( Terminalia chebula ), Amloki ( Phyllanthus emblica ) and Bohera. According to Ayurvedic method, regular consumption of Triphala-soaked water will reduce excess weight effortlessly. It is found in the Sal forests as well as hilly forests of Bangladesh. It is also found in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia.  Other names:  Boyra, Bastard myrobalan (Eng). Leaves are ovoid or obovoid, 8-20 cm long and 5-10 cm wide with rounded tip, long petioled, alternate, clustered at the end of branchlets. The leaves totally fall off in winter. The sparkle of new leaves in spring is bound to catch everyone's eye.  Inflorescence is axilary, terminal, pendant, spike, up to 8 cm long. Flowers are sweet-scented, sessile, small

Shalu kocu or Shola kochu, Alocasia fornicata

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Shalu kocu or Shola kochu ( Alocasia fornicata , family: Araceae) is an erect perinnial herb with rhizome and stolon, attaining a height of 1 to 1.5 m. Stolon grows horizontally. Roots are whitish. It is found everywhere, specially in ditch and damp places in Bangladesh along with Pipul ( Piper longum ), Bhat ( Clerodendrum viscosum ), Asam lota, ( Mikania micrantha ) and other species of ferns. It is also found in South and Southeast Asia. All parts of the plant is eaten as vegetable in the country.  Leaves are broad, thin, triangular, pale but deep green, glabrous, shiny, 30-40 cm long, bottom part cut apart. Petiole is thick and almost as long as the total height of the plant, 40-45 cm. Like other members of the genus Alocasia, new leaves develop slowly from its wrapped state. New leaves are spectacular. Numerous small and yellow-colored flowers are clustered on spadix inflorescence, covered with eye-catching white-colored spathe. In the initial stage the inflorescence is fully co

Noyontara or Cape periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus

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Noyontara or Cape periwinkle ( Catharanthus roseus , family: Apocynaceae) is an annual or perinnial semi-woody herb, attaining a height of 30-90 cm. Stem and shoots are reddish and juicy. Whole plant has a strong odor. It is one of the most appreciated flowering plants of the tropical world. The plant is so endearing that several cultivars have been created and the colors of their flowers are no less beautiful. The original home of the plant is Madagascar.   Leaves are beautiful too. These are green, glabrous, elliptical-ovate, 5-7 cm long, tip pointed, alternate. Flowers are of two colors mainly: white and violet, 3-3.5 cm wide. Petals 5 with red spot at the centre (yellow eye in white flowers). Lower part of the flower is tubular, 2.5 cm long. Flowers bloom mainly in rainy season, though it may be seen round the year. Fruit is a folicle, 2-5 cm long. Seeds are dark black. The plant is propagated by seeds and air layering. It grows easily in partial shade. It is also suitable for pl

Agor or Lign aloes, Aquilaria agallocha

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Agor or Lign aloes ( Aquilaria agallocha , family: Thymelaeaceae) is an large evergreen tree with spreading branches. Trunk is straght, glabrous. Bark is whitish. Wood is soft. Perfume stick Agorbati and various kinds of perfumes are made from its wood. It is cultivated as commercial crops in Bangladesh, especially in the hilly area of Moulovibazar district. It is originally from India. It can be seen scattered in different parts of Bangladesh. Other name: Oguru  Leaves are green, thin, glabrous, lanceolate, petioled, 7-12 cm long and 2-5 cm wide, entire, apex acute, alternate. Flowers are whitish, borne on umbel inflorescence; petals 5. Flower blooms in April-May. Fruit is 2-5 cm long, obovate, covered with thick hair. Brown-colored seeds come out of the fruit and hang for 1-2 days. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.   Powder of timber is used to prevent insect infestation. Bark is used to make rope. Resin is obtained as a result of the action of a type of fungus. In addi

Gondhovadulia or Skunkvine, Paederia foetida

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Gondhovadulia or Skunkvine ( Paederia foetida , family: Rubiaceae) is a perennial twining climer having very unpleasant scented leaves and hairy shoots. The beautiful leafy climber is found everywhere in Bangladesh as homestead plant. It grows naturally in hilly forests of the country too. Beside Bangladesh it is also found in the countries of Southern Asia.  Other names :  Gondhovaduli, Gondhobadali, Badali-vadalia, Gondhal, Gandhal, Modhulota, Paduni pata; Bhadra & Prasarani (Sanskrit). Leaves are simple, deep green, oblong-ovoid with cordate base, tip elongated, 5-10 cm long and 7 cm wide, hairy, long petioled. Its leaves produces almost the scent of human stool. But the truth is, its leaves are eaten as a very tasty vegetable in the Indian subcontinent. And these are used as effective medicine in the treatment of various kinds of diseases. Flowers are in terminal or axillary inflorescence, almost 1 cm in length, campanulate, pink or white in outside, violet in inner side, Pet

Alkushi or Cowitch, Mucana pruriens

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Alkushi or Cowitch ( Mucana pruriens , family: Fabaceae) is an annual or sometimes perennial twinning vine. It is one of the best itch-producing fruits in the world. The leafy and hairy plant is found beside the roads, in village thickets and in the deep hilly forests of Bangladesh. It is also found in some countries of South and Southeast Asia.  Other names:  Bilai chimti, Koch, Bichuti. Leaves are tri-foliate, grey-silky beneath, leaflets ovate or almost quadrangular, 8-17 cm long, petioled. Leaf-nerves are unequal-sided.  6-30 flowers flowers are in raceme inflorescence, pendulous, 15-30 cm long, tube campanulate, corolla usually deep purple, also be white or pink, 3-4 cm long. Flowering occurs in October-November. Fruit is S-shaped pod that covered with numerous irritating or stinging hairs, grey in color, 5-8 cm long and 1.5 cm wide. Seeds 5-6,  grey in color. Fruit matures in November-February. Its fruits, seeds, roots have been widely used in Ayurvedic treatment for ages. Root