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Showing posts from October, 2019

Bon-chalita or Kukurjihba, Leea alata

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Bon-chalita or Kukurjihba (Leea alata, family: Vitaceae) a perennial hard shrub having quadrangular branches with margins and minute dots, attaining a height of 1-3 m. The nodes of young shoots are reddish and articled and have stipules. It is found in the Sal forests and hilly areas of Bangladesh.

Leaves are pinnately compound, leaflet 3-7, usually 5, deeply veined and serrated roughly, green, elliptical, 30-35 cm long and 6-8 cm wide, opposite, sessile. The leaves are very similar to the leaves of Chalta. That's why in Bangla the plant is called Chalta. 

Inflorescence pubescence, large, 5-17 cm, bears huge number of small and vivid red flowers, petals 5. Flowering occurs in rainy season. 


Fruit is a berry; globose, slightly depressed, having lobes; numerous. Ripe fruits are blackish. 

Propagation of the plant is caused by cuttings or rootstocks.

The plant is used as medicine for worm, skin and ear diseases. Due to its attractive red flowers, it is well-regarded by amateur garde…

Jambura or Pomelo, Citrus grandis

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Jambura or Pomelo (Citrus grandis, family: Rutaceae) a small tree with branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The bark of the leafy and much branching tree is grey. It is originated probably in Thailand or Malaysia. It is found in the Southeast Asia nowadays. It is planted as homestead tree in rural areas of Bangladesh. 
       Other names: Batabi lebu, Jamir. 
Leaves are deep green, elliptical-ovate, 8-15 cm long and 6-10 cm wide, slightly dented. Petiole has stipules. And by this characteristic the plant can be identified easily. Like all other members of citrus family, the sweet scent from the leaves is available.  

Flowers are bright white, with 5 petals. They are sweet-scented. Where the flower blooms, the whole premise is filled with the honey scent. Numerous stamens surround pistil in the middle of the flower. It flowers in summer and produces fruit in rainy season.

The juicy fruit is very big, 12-25 cm in diameter, almost a size of football, weighing 1-2 kg. The rural boys pl…

Aknadi or Snake vine, Stephania japonica

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Aknadi or Snake vine (Stephania japonica, family: Menispermaceae) is a creeping perennial herb climbing other plants along with Guloncho, Telakucha and other plants. Its stem is slender and glabrous. Its local name is Nimukha, since the petiole originate from the middle of the leaf. It is found in the Southeast Asia.
Other names: Nimukha, Akondi, Pattha, Makandi, Bemmokopat lota.

One can easily detect the twining climber by its shield-like leaves. They are entire, green, cordate, sometimes almost triangular, round at the base and acute at the end; glabrous, 5-15 cm long, petiole long.  Snake vine indeed!
Flowers are very small and very deciduous, clustered on the top of axillary inflorescence. Flowers bloom in summer. 

The female flowers are whitish and the males are yellowish.

Fruit is a drupe, almost 1 cm in diameter, globose, green when raw, red when ripe, curved-seeded. It is propagated by seeds. 

The plant is used as herbal medicine in many diseases. It is used in cholera, dysenter…

Nolkhagra or Giant cane, Arundo donax

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Nolkhagra or  Giant cane (Arundo donax, family: Gramineae) is a perennial tall grass attaining a height of 2-4 m. Stem is with nodes and leaf arises from each node. The plant is found along with Kaash, beside river, canal, bell-jheel, pond and dich in Bangladesh.

Leaves are large, about 20-35 cm long, narrow, deep green in color. Flowers are creamy white, small and clustered, which are largely divided. Flowering occurs in rainy season. The plant is propagated by seeds and rhizome.



Leaves are used as food for livestock. A kind of mat is made from the leaves too. The stem is used for fencing. Ancient Romans were used its stem as pen. The plant is a perfect sanctuary of fish, birds and snakes.



It is a plant of herbal quality. It is antiseptic, antineuralgic, diuretic and depurative. It is used to treat bone breaking and breathing problems. In heavy dose it is toxic and narcotic.


The water-friendly tall grass is beautiful to look at. It can be planted in lakes and the water-area of parks an…

Shet-chondon or Sandalwood, Santalum album

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Shet-chondon or Sandalwood (Santalum album, family: santalaceae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree with upright branches. Bark is dark grey and rough. It is a slow-growing tree. Its trunk increases by 15-20 cm across in 30-40 years! It is considered as a sacred plant.

Its timber is aromatic. Brownish heartwood is strongly scented. Sapwood is white. Indian subcontinent is the original home of the precious plant.



Leaves usually opposite, simple, coriaceous, elliptic, 5-7 cm long, almost acute at the end.



Inflorescence is usually cymose panicle on the axils of leaves at the end of the branches. Flowers are very small, whitish or purplish. Flowering occurs from June-October.

Fruit is a drupe, fleshy, round, violet in color. Seed globose. Propagation is caused by seeds.

Essential oil is obtained from the wood and roots. A kind of viscid oil is also obtained from its seeds too. It is analgesic, diuretic, deodorant and depurative. It is an antidote to gonorrhea, epilepsy, hiccup, pox, abscess, …

Koinari, Golden gardenia, Gardenia coronaria

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Koinari or Golden gardenia (Gardenia coronaria, family: Rubiaceae) is a medium-sized deciduous tree with profuse branches at the top. The tree can get a height of  12-15 m. It is found in the hilly areas of Sylhet, Chottogram and Chottogram Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. 

Leaves are simple, glossy green, oblong-lanceolate, 10-20 cm long, short-petioled, 3-5 opposite leaves at the top of the branchlets. Veins and midrib are stout in texture.

Flowers are yellow, very fragrant, showy, 5-7 cm across, petals 5, having long tube, calyx tubular too. Flower blooms at the spring.


Fruit appears single or in a pair, 2-5 cm long, 5-angled.

The plant is propagated by seeds. The tree, despite being quite beautiful not so popular in our country. Its wood is used as firewood. The inside of the fruit is eaten by the children.


It is found abundantly in India and Myanmar.It is grown in the parks and botanical gardens in the country.

Lotkon or Burmese grape, Baccaurea ramiflora

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Lotkon or Burmese grape (Baccaurea ramiflora, family: Euphorbiaceae) is a small tree attaining a height of 6-8 m. Trunk is stout and bark is grey in color. It  is a very common and popular fruit in Bangladesh. It is found throughout the South and Southeast Asia. Indonesia is considered as its original home. 


Local names: Harfata, Bhubi, Kanaiju, Lotka, Lotkaw, Kicchuan, Notka.
Leaves are simple, alternate, deep green, 10-20 cm long and 3-8 cm wide; lanceolate-ovoid, veins and midrib are clearly visible, undulate with cute apex, pedicel quite long. 
Flowers are very attractive, tiny, brown in color, they appear in cluster on the body of trunk and main branches. Flowering season is spring.  
In the rainy season, the round fruits hang in plenty on tree trunk and branches. There can be up to 30 pieces of fruits in a single bunch. They are sweet-scented, brownish or yellowish, round, 3-4 cm in diameter, 3-4 chambered. Fruit-skin is quite hard.

Fruit pulp contains protein, fat, minerals and v…