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Showing posts from June, 2020

Chotro-pushpo or lady's umbrella, Holmskioldia sanguinea

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Chotro-pushpo or lady's umbrella (Holmskioldia sanguinea, family: Verbenaceae) is a woody and creeping shrub with drooping branches. It looks a lot like Bougainvillea from a distance. Bark is grey and smooth. The flowers of the deciduous plant are so unique that it is easily recognizable. It is found in the hilly forests of Sylhet of Bangladesh. The shrub is a native species of the Indian subcontinent. 

Leaves are pubescent, dark green, elliptic-lanceolate, round or subcordate at the base, 4-6 cm long, opposite, dented with elongated and pointed apex.   

The corolla of the flower is tubular, 2 cm long, red in color. Calyx almost looks like a upper side of lady's umbrella or a Chinese hat, orange-colored. Bisexual flowers bloom throughout the year but these bloom in abundance in winter and spring. 

Fruit is ovoid, 1 cm wide. Seeds 4. It is propagated by seeds and cuttings. 

This wild flower of Bangladesh has become absolutely confined to its own habitat. So as a beautiful and e…

Jibon or Indian nettle tree, Trema orientalis

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Jibon or Indian nettle tree (Trema orientalis, family: Ulmaceae) is a fast growing medium-sized tree with green trunk and branches, attaining a height of 10 m. It is usually found in the form of bushes on fallow lands and beside the roads. It is a very common tree in Bangladesh. The evergreen tree is also found in South and Southeast Asia and tropical Africa. 
Other names: Chikon, Jinal, Gobor-jiga, Bon-jiga, Charcoal tree (Eng).

Leaves are hairy on both sides; cordate or round at the bsae, elliptic-lanceolate, 6-12 cm long and 3-4 cm wide, hairy, alternate, serrated, elongated and pointed apex.

Flowers are greenish white, tiny. Male and female flowers grow in the same tree or in separate trees. These bloom round the year.

Fruits are round-elliptic, tiny too. The fruits turn black when ripe. Propagatioin is caused by seeds and cuttings.

Adicoction of the root is used for the treatment of diarrhoea and the passing of blood in the urine. The root, bark and leaves are used in epilepsy. Th…

Hapormali or Bread Flower, Vallaris solanacea

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Hapormali or Bread Flower (Vallaris solanacea, family: Apocynaceae) is a slightly woody and extensive creeper with pure white and highly scented flowers. The whole body of the plant is filled with milky latex. It is mainly found in the hilly forests of Bangladesh. In addition, it will be seen in some gardens and botanical gardens of the country. It is also found in South and Southeast Asia.
Oher names: Mali, Ramsor, Hadpur.

Leaves are big, 12-15 cm long and 4-6 cm wide, pale green, ovate-lanceolate with pointed apex, opposite, petioled.

Fragrant flowers bloom in large clusters, usually 5-6 flowers. These are white, cup-shaped, abot 3 cm wide, peatals 5, sepals 5. The smell of the flower is so sweet that erasing it from our memory is a very difficult task. Flowers bloom in spring. 

Milky latex is used in skin diseases somewhere. The plant is propagated by cuttings. It needs to be conserved in different parts of the country as it is limited to certain areas. As one of the best flowering …

Chinigura or Sweet broomweed, Scoparia dulcis

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Chinigura or Sweet broomweed (Scoparia dulcis, family: Plantaginaceae) is an annual upright herb with sweet-tasted leaves and several branches. It does not reach a height of more than 1 m. It loves to grow in wet soil. The plant is usually found in fallow land and roadside area in Bangladesh. The herb is native to tropical America and it gradually spreads throughout the tropics.
Other names: Bon dhoney, Bon dhuni, Furfuri, Chinipata, Chiniguri, Michhridana, Bonduni.

Sweet-tasted leaves are light green in color, obovoid-lanceolate with deeply serrated edge; 2-5 cm long, opposite.

Flowers are small, white; bloom as pair or single, .3-.5 cm wide, pedicel quite long; sepals 4, petals 4. Flowering occurs in  May-July.

The fruits look a lot like coriander. these are capsule, almost round, .5 cm in diametre. Dried fruits deep brown in color remain on the plant for several days. Seeds are round. It is propagated by seeds. 

The leaves and flowers are stomachic. These are effective in dysentery …

Tit begun or Turkey berry, Solanum torvum

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Tit begun or Turkey berry (Solanum torvum, family: Solanaceae) is a perennial undershrub with hairy stem and shoots, attaining a height of 3 m. Stem with minute spots have stout spines. In Bangladesh it can be seen almost everywhere including the hilly areas. It is also found in Central & South America. It grows as weed in waste place and beside cropfields and roads. 

Other names: Goth begun, Gota begun.

Leaves are compound, opposite, hairy, ovate, or multi-lobed, 12-15 cm long and 7-10 cm wide.

Flowers are small, pure white with triangular lobes, 2-2.5 cm wide, bloom in cluster. Flowers and fruits are found almost all the year round.

Fruit is berry, globose, yellow when ripen, 1-1.5 in diametre. Dried fruits do not fall off easily. These are dark brown in color. It is propagated by seeds. 

Root is used for heart disease, asthma, cough, worm, toothache and fever. The fruit is used in snake bites. Leaf juice mixed with gijnger is used to stop vomiting. Fruits are edible. Green fruit…

Shagor nishinda or Simpleleaf chastetree. Vitex trifolia

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Shagor nishinda or Simpleleaf chastetree (Vitex trifolia, family: Lamiceae) is a shrub or small-sized tree with profuse branches. The plant get a height up to 4 m. Stem of the deciduous plant is stout, young shoots are reddish and pubescent. 

It is found mainly in the islands and coastal regions of Cox's Bazar and Teknaf in Bangladesh. It is also found in the coasts of East Africa and South Asia. The plant is very similar to Nishinda (Vitex negundo).
Photographed in Chera-dip, Saint Martin's Islands
Leaves are scented. These are usually trifoliate but sometimes single; ovate-oblong; 2.5-7 cm long, sessile; upperside green and glabrous, lowerside whitish and hairy. Terminal leaf is larger than others.

Flowers are small, terminal, tomentose, purplish blue; sepals 5, petals 5. Flowering occurs throughout the year.

Fruit is round, 1.5-2 cm in diameter. It get blackish or deep purple when ripen. Seeds number 4.

The plant is propagated by seeds. It's Sanskrit name is Jalanirgundi.…

Kolkey or Yellow oleander, Cascabela thevetia

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Kolkey or Yellow oleander (Cascabela thevetia, family: Apocynaceae)  is a small evergreen tree with profuse branches and soft stem. Bark is whitish grey and smooth. The whole plant emits milky latex and it is poisonous. The plant is originated in tropical America, Peru and Brazil. The tree is believed to have come to this country in the fifteenth century by Portuguese.

Other names: Holud korobi, Shonnyashi phul.
The tree is poisonous but it is one of the most beautiful trees in the world. The whole world is fascinated by its nice-scented beautiful flowers. As an ornamental tree it is planted in temples, garden and parks in Bangladesh. It is planted as homested tree in the country too. 

Leaves are green, glabrous, linear, 10-15 cm long.

Flowers are funnel-shaped, sweet-scented; sepals 5, petals 5. Petals are twisted rightwards. Though it is called Yellow oleander in English but its flowers are of three colors--yellow, reddish orange and white. Flowering occurs round the year.

Fleshy fru…

Daruchini or True cinnamon tree, Cinnamomum verum

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Daruchini or True cinnamon tree (Cinnamomum verum, family: Lauraceae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree with profuge foliage. The tree is bushy in nature. Bark is grey and rough. It is famous for its spectacular brilliant red leaves. Strongly scented bark is used as spice. 

It is cultivated widely in China, Java and Sumatra. It is found in Hill Tracts in Bangladesh as a commercial pllant. As an ornamental plant, it is also found in parks, gardens and botanical gardens in the country. It is originated from Sri Lanka.

Aromatic leaves are green, glabrous, slightly hard and thin with three strong parallel nerves; ovate-lanceolate, opposite or almost opposite. Young leaves are very beautiful and these are gorgeous red in color.

Flowers are very small, pale brown, borne on compound umbel. Flowering occurs at the end of winter.

Fruit is Ovoid-oblong, 1.5-2 cm long, slightly fleshy, deep purple when ripen. The tree is propagated by seeds and cuttings. 
Bark is used as fever, skin diseases, too…

Jhika or Indian ash tree, Lannea coromandelica

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Jhika or Indian ash tree (Lannea coromandelica, family: Anacardiaceae) is a deciduous medium-sized tree with profuse branches. Bark is grey. It emits a kind of gum. It can grow easily when branches are planted in the ground. It is found everywhere in Bangladesh. Perhaps the plant is originated from the arid region of India, Andaman Islands and Sri Lanka.
Other names: Jiol, Jial, Jigor, Jiga, Jhiga, Jika, Kafila, Kamila, Bialdi, Bhadi.

Leaves are compound; leaflets 5-11, lanceolate, 7-15 cm long and 5-8 cm wide, opposite. 

Flowers are small, yellowish, on terminal inflorescence, arising on leaflet branches. Male flowers downward, females pubescent. Flowers bloom in spring.

Flruits are small, juicy, in a bunch, reddish. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds and cuttings.  

The leafy tree looks beautiful all the year round. But in winter it becomes a completely leafless tree.

Leaves and bark are used in heart disease, blood dysentery, stomach disorder, constipation and sore in mouth.…

Kanta notey or Prickly amaranth, Amaranthus spinosus

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Kanta notey or Prickly amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus, family: Amaranthaceae) is an annual herb with soft hair and spines. Angular stem is whitish green, sometimes red-margined, hard and smooth, 60-100 cm long, with spine at each node, much-branched. 
Other names: Kantabhanga, Kantamorich, Kantakhuira, Kanta-khudure, Kantanotia, Spiny pig weed (Eng). 

In Bangladesh, it grows beside the roads and in fallow lands in plenty. It is also found in India, Sri Lanka and in other tropical areas of the world.

Leaves are pale green, glabrous, eliptical, petioled. There are two pointed spines in each pair of leaf-node. 

Panicle inflorescence is 6-15 cm long with smal dark brown flowers. It produces flowers from summer to rains. Seeds are black and shiny. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. 

It is emolient, stomachic and diuretic. It is as used to increase the mik of cow.