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Koinari, gardenia coronaria

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Koinari (gardenia coronaria, family: rubiaceae) is a medium-sized deciduous tree with profuse branches at the top. The tree can get a height of  12-15 m. It is found in the hilly areas of Sylhet, Chottogram and Chottogram Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. 

Leaves are simple, glossy green, oblong-lanceolate, 10-20 cm long, short-petioled, 3-5 opposite leaves at the top of the branchlets. Veins and midrib are stout in texture.

Flowers are yellow, very fragrant, showy, 5-7 cm across, petals 5, having long tube, calyx tubular too. Flower blooms at the spring.


Fruit appears single or in a pair, 2-5 cm long, 5-angled.

The plant is propagated by seeds. The tree, despite being quite beautiful not so popular in our country. Its wood is used as firewood. The inside of the fruit is eaten by the children.


It is found abundantly in India and Myanmar.It is grown in the parks and botanical gardens in the country.

Lotkon or Burmese grape, baccaurea ramiflora

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Lotkon or Burmese grape (baccaurea ramiflora, family: euphorbiaceae) is a small tree attaining a height of 6-8 m. Trunk is stout and bark is grey in color. It  is a very common and popular fruit in Bangladesh. It is found throughout the South and Southeast Asia. Indonesia is considered as its original home. 


Local names: Harfata, Bhubi, Kanaiju, Lotka, Lotkaw, Kicchuan, Notka.
Leaves are simple, alternate, deep green, 10-20 cm long and 3-8 cm wide; lanceolate-ovoid, veins and midrib are clearly visible, undulate with cute apex, pedicel quite long. 
Flowers are very attractive, tiny, brown in color, they appear in cluster on the body of trunk and main branches. Flowering season is spring.  
In the rainy season, the round fruits hang in plenty on tree trunk and branches. There can be up to 30 pieces of fruits in a single bunch. They are sweet-scented, brownish or yellowish, round, 3-4 cm in diameter, 3-4 chambered. Fruit-skin is quite hard.

Fruit pulp contains protein, fat, minerals and v…

Gewa or Blind your eye mangrove, excoecaria agallocha

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Gewa or Blind your eye mangrove (excoecaria agallocha, family: euphobiaceae) is an large coastal shrub or small tree attaining a height of 3-10 m. Bark is grey and rough. The plant is abundantly found near the sea shore of Chottogram, Cox'sbazar and in the Sundar bans. It is native to South Asia and Australia. Broken branches and leaves emit white latex which is very dangerous to human skin as well as eyes. 
Other names: Genga, Gew.
Leaves are bright green, alternate, glabrous, petioled, elliptical, lateral nerves unclear, 5-10 cm long and 4-5 cm wide. petiole is 2-3 cm long. 

Flowers are yellowish, small, scented, borne on raceme. Male and female flowers bloom on separate trees. Female flowers appear on shorter inflorescence. Flowers bloom in rainy season. 

Fruit is globose, smooth, 3-lobbed, dehiscent. The propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.

Its timber is light and spongy. It is used as the raw material of paper and match industries. Light and easily portable furniture a…

Keora or Mangrove apple

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Keora or Mangrove apple (sonneratia apetala, family: lythraceae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree with aerial roots and drooping branches, attaining a height of 15 m. The bark of the mangrove tree is black and smooth. Needless to say, the leafy tree is salt tolerant. The fast growing tree is found through the tidal forests of Bangladesh, Myanmar and India.  

Leaves are simple, 5-10 cm long and 2.5-5 cm wide, oblong-lanceolate, coriacous, shinny, tapering at the end, short-petioled.

Flowers are greenish white, terminal, single to 3-5 flowers, petal-less, articled with cup-shaped sepal, divided into 4 parts; pedicel long; stamens numerous, style is very much projected from the flower. Flowering occurs from March-August.

Fruit is big in size, round-shaped, crowned with persistent sepals. Surprisingly true, seeds germinate on the tree.

In fact, the tree is located in the water or in waterside area. So she had to take this kind of action. Fruits are many-seeded.


The honey extracted from fl…

Aam or Mango, mangifera indica

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Aam or Mango (mangifera indica, family: anacardiaceae) is a medium or large-sized evergreen tree with spreading branches, attaining a height of 40 m. The trunk is grey or blackish and rough. The leafy tree is found everywhere in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, it is planted as a homestead tree. 

Mango is called the king of all fruits in the country. The Size, color, smell, juicy pulp, taste, nutritional value--overall it is the best fruit. It is the national tree of Bangladesh. Southeast Asia is the original home of the plant. 

Leaves are dark green with firm veins and midrib, much-smelled, glabrous, oblong-lanceolate, 12-20 cm long and 5-7 cm wide, alternate; edge undulated; petiole 2.5-4 cm long. 



New leaves are gorgeous-looking, reddish or copper-colored. Leaves emit a kind of milky latex. 


Flowers are very small, borne on terminal raceme in large panicle, reddish-yellow, highly-scented. Male and bisexual flowers are found together in the panicle. Flowering begins at the end of winter. 


Fr…

Jaam or Black plum, syzygium cumini

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Jaam or Black plum (syzygium cumini, family: myrtaceae) is a medium or large-sized evergreen with spreading and upright branches. The trunk is straight, grey in color and rough.The fruits of the plant is very juicy, nice-colored, tasty and nutritious too. It is a very common tree in Bangladesh. The plant is an evergreen and shadow-giving tree. So it is planted in parks and gardens and beside the avenue and highways. It is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia as well as Australia. The original home of the plant is considered as India.  
Other names: Indian black berry, Jamun, Jambu
Leaves are simple, green, glabrous, coriaceous, ovate-oblong, 6-15 cm long and 3-9 cm wide, apex pointed, alternate, petioled.

Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds and cuttings. Fruits, roots, leaves, seeds and barks are used in dysentery, diabetes, cough, high blood pressure and lever diseases. A kind of wine can be produced from its juicy fruits. Fruit contains starch, protein,…

Kathal or Jack fruit, artocarpus heterophyllus

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Kathal or Jack fruit (artocarpus heterophyllus, family: moraceae) is a medium-sized leafy tree with many branches. It is the national fruit of Bangladesh as well as Sri Lanka. The fruits are unique in taste, well-smelled, nice-colored and juicy too. 

It is one of the most largest fruits of the world. The evergreen tree has milky latex all over its body. The bark of the tree is rough and sometimes it removes scale. Bangladesh and India are the original home of the plant.


The leaves are entire, having bract, ovoid, 15-20 cm long and 10-12 cm wide, alternate, apex acute, coriacious; veins and midribs are clearly visible and those are stout too.


Flowering occurs in December and it continues to March. Flowers borne on spike inflorescence and those are covered with two bracts. In the same tree, the female and male flowers are seen differently. From the main branch of the tree, the female flowers appear.


The peduncle, ovary and perianth, all of them are transformed into a fruit. This type of…

Rubber bot or Indian rubber, ficus elastica

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Rubber bot or Indian rubber (ficus elastica, family: moraceae) is a medium or large evergreen tree with aerial prop roots grow from its branches. The fig tree with milky latex in its leaves and shoots can get a height of more than 30 meters. The trunk is smooth, black-colored and has very tiny whitish spots.


This tree is well-known as an ornamental plant. In Bangladesh, it is found on roadside area or the edge of forest and in parks and gardens. The beautiful tree is native to South and Southeast Asia.


Leaves are spectacular, simple, big, leathery, deep green, sometimes deep purplish, shiny and smooth, elliptic-ovate, 12-30 cm long and 5-12 cm wide, petioled, alternate, acuminate at the top.


Florets remain inside the fruit or fig which cannot be seen from outside. Fruiting occurs in the late spring. Fruits develop in the nodes of  the Fruits. They usually round, sometimes slender in shape. Mature fruits are yellow or red in color. The plant is propagated by seeds and cuttings.

The wow …

Panikola or Duck lettuce, ottelia alismoides

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Panikola or Duck lettuce (ottelia alismoides, family: hydrocharitaceae) is an annual submerged herb grows in the paddy fields and at the edge of water bodies. The short-stemmed aquatic plant prefers shallow water bodies and can survive in strong light. Its roots along with rhizome are ingrained in soil. It is found in the tropical and subtropical Asia, Africa and Australia.
Other Bangla names: Ram korola, Kaobali, Torukola, Shyamkola, Kuchkolai
Leaves grow up with the rise in water level. Size and shape of the leaves are different. They are usually oblong-cordate, slightly clear, fragile, edge undulate. 

The size of the petiole depends on the level of water too. It generally gets a length of 10-20 cm. Peduncle comes out from the rhizome. 

The flower is covered with green spathes in early stage. Mature flower stands erectly on the water. Flower is white or light violet. Sepals 3, petals 3. Flowering occurs in autumn and late autumn in Bangladesh.

Fruit is a capsule, linear. It is edible…

Buddho narikel or Buddha coconut, pterygota alata

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Buddho narikel or Buddha coconut (pterygota alata, family: sterculiaceae) is a large erect tree with branches, reaching up to 50 m in height. Trunk is huge and stout. Bark is smooth and  grey in color. The deciduous mighty tree is found in the hilly forests of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet of Bangladesh. 

The tree is also found in South India, Sikkim and Andaman Islands. In Bangladesh it is planted in parks and botanical gardens as an ornamental plant. 

Leaves are dark green, big, cordate, glabrous, 10-25 cm long and 7-20 cm wide, alternate; long-petioled: 10-14 cm long. Midrib and veins are clearly visible.

Flowers are reddish inside, outside brownish yellow, scented, petals 5. It produces flowers in spring.


Fruit is big, round, hard, dehiscent, dark brown in color. Seeds are winged, numerous. Fruit pulp tastes almost like Coconut.  

The native plant is propagated by seeds. Seed is edible too. It can be taken after frying. A kind of oil is extracted from seed. It i…