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Kodbel or Elephant wood apple, Feronia limonia

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Kodbel or Elephant wood apple (Feronia limonia, family: Rutaceae) is medium-sized fruit-giving  tree with straight trunk and numerous branches. Bark is dark grey. It has straight spines in axil. Some parts of the tree are quite fragrant--leaves, ripe fruits, seeds etc. The tree is planted as ornamental one in parks and gardens nowadays in Bangladesh. It is planted in the country as a homestead tree too.
Other Bangla names: Koyetbel, Chirpaki.

Leaflet is small, 5-7, and 3-4 cm wide, opposite, cuneate or obovate. Leaves are scented.  

Flowers are good-looking, showy. Those are reddish; calyx 5-lobbed, triangular; petals ovate. Male and female flowers can be seen in the same panicle. Flower blooms in March-April. 

Fruit is round, greenish white or yellowish white at a glance, 8-10 cm in diameter. Skin is very hard but fragile. The pulp is fleshy and soft. Raw pulp is light brown, ripe is deep chocholate or yelowish brown. 



The ripe fruit is quite aromatic. It tastes sour with the mixture o…

Bhui dumur, Ficus heterophylla var. assamica

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Bhui dumur (Ficus heterophylla var. assamica, family: Moraceae) is a creeping or erect scandent fig with with pubescent branches and harsh-textured leaves. The water-loving plant is found in riverside area, beside the pond, khal-beel & jheels in Bangladesh. It is also found in South and Southeast Asia.  

The leaves are beautiful, appear in different forms; multilobed or orbicular to lanceolate or ovate, 10-15 cm long, very rough, apex acuminated; margin dented. Petioles very long, 12-15 cm long.

Flowers remain inside the fruit. Fruit is a fig, axillary, ovate, pubescent, 2-3 cm long, ripe fruits are dark orange and smooth. Fruit ripes in May-June.  

The juice of leaves and roots are used as local medicine in Indian subcontinent.

Ashwagandha or Winter cherry, Withania somnifera

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Ashwagandha or Winter cherry (Withania somnifera, family: Solanaceae) is an erect and almost branchless or terete herb, reaching a height of 1-1.5 m. It is a herb of high quality medicinal properties. Root is long and goes deep in soil. The plant is mainly originated in Mediterranean region. As a medicinal plant it can be found in any herb garden of Bangladesh. 

Leaves are green, elliptic-ovate, curved, keel, 5-10 long & 2-5 cm wide; tip sub-acte to acute; margin undulate. 

Flowers are axillary, small, campanulate, greenish, lobes 5-6.

Fruit is berry, small; green when raw and yellow or red when ripe. Fruit is covered with inflated callyx, which is papery, granular, chinese lantern-like. When dry it get dark brown color. Like many other members of Solanaceae family, its fruit also produces numerous seeds. 

Flowering and fruiting occurs in September to December. The plant is propagated by seed.

It is favored for its herbal quality. It is used in physical and nervous weakness, insom…