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Turut chondal or Telegraph plant, Desmodium motorium

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Turut chondal or Telegraph plant (Desmodium motorium, family: Fabaceae) is a shrub with branches and attractive leaves, attaining a height of 2 m. It naturally grows in different districts Bangladesh. It is also found in the countries of South and Southeast Asia. Like Lojjaboti (Touch me not), the leaves of the plant can move and that can be seen with the naked eye. Renowned Bengali scientist Jagadish Chandra Bose proved by experimenting on this plant that the plant also has life. Seeing the movement of the leaves, he may have become interested in this research.
Common names : Turuchondal, Turichondal, Bonchondal, Gorachan.

Leaves are pale green, sometimes trifoliate with white shade along the midrib; Treminal leaflet is much longer and thicker than other two, 5-7 cm long and 2-2.5 cm wide. The most notable feature of the plant is that its tiny leaves of each pinna can move. This may be to get more sunlight.

Flowers are pale orange. Thesee bloom in spring (Feb-Mar). 

Fruit is a pod, 3-5 c…

Gima-shak or Pot-biroot, Glinus oppositifolius

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Gima-shak or Pot-biroot (Glinus oppositifolius, family: Molluginaceae) is an annual herb with diffiuse branches and taproot. Stems can be 3 to 40 cm long. Young shoots and branches are silky and sometimes reddish. It is found in waterside area, cropfield, fallow land and damp places in Bangladesh. It occasionally grows on old walls. It is found in the tropical Asia, Africa and in Australia too. 

Leaves are 1-2.5 cm long, elliptic-oblanceolate, petioled, opposite.

Flowers are tiny, white in color, showy, 0.4 cm long, petals 5, stamens 5-10. The flower buds are reddish.

Fruits are ellipsoid, reddish or brownish, 4-5 mm, 3-valved; seeds numerous. The plant is propagated by sedds. 

It can be planted as an ornamenal plant in tub or pot. It is eaten as vegetables in Bangladesh. It is used in constipation, indigestion, itching? and various kinds of skin diseases. By the by, like many other herbs the color of the whole plant is occasionally reddish.

Lal shonail or Pink shower, Cassia javanica

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Lal shonail or Pink shower (Cassia javanica, family: Fabaceae) is a medium-sized deciduous tree with knotted and shortened trunk, attaining a height of 12-16 m. Bark is grey. Young shoots are silky.Its spreading branches sometimes almost touch the ground towards the peripherry. It is an ideal tree for planting in a large garden. 

It is found in the hilly forests of Sylhet and Chottogram in Bangladesh. As a beautiful ornamental tree, it is planted in parks, botanical gardens, gardens and roadsides in the country. It is also found in various tropical countries of Asia. 

At the beginning of summer, the canopy of the tree is covered with flowers in such a way that it looks as if a pink fountain is waiting to fall. In order to get colorful colors in summer, you have to plant this tree in the garden with Jarul, Krishnochura, Shonalu and Konokchura.

Leaves are spectacular. These are compound, 12-24; leaflets elliptic-oblong, 2.5-4.5 cm ang 2-3.5 cm wide. 

Flowers are scented, pink or reddish, 2 …

Kushum or Ceylon oak, Schleichera oleosa

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Kushum or Ceylon oak (Schleichera oleosa, family: Sapindaceae) is a large-sized deciduous tree with spreading canopy and huge trunk, attaining a height up to 40 m. The diameter of the trunk can be up to 2 meters. Bark is grey and smooth. The leaves fall at the end of winter and new leaves come in spring. The leaves are surprisingly red. 
Other names: Joyna, Lakkha, Gum tree, Honey tree.

This giant tree can be easily recognized by shiny red leaves. The fruits look a lot like Lotkon and are called by this name somewhere. It can be seen scattered in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts including the northern part of the country. It is originated in the Southeast region of Asia, especially in India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. 

Leaves are compound, sessile; leaflets elliptic-obovate, 4-20 cm long and 3-9 cm wide, opposite. The extraordinary young leaves are brilliant red in color. These are seen several times a year.

Raceme inflorescence 6-15 cm long. Flowers are greenish yellow, without petals. …

Boro kolkashundey or Western senna, Senna occidentalis

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Boro kolkashundey or Western senna (Senna occidentalis, family: Fabaceae) is an erect annual or sometimes perennial herb, attaining a height of 1-2 m. Stem and branches are usually reddish and are angular with linear mark. In Bangladesh it grows on fallow land, along roadsides and around the railways. As an ornamental plant it can be planted in gardens and parks.   Other names: Boro halkishunda, Tuli-koroi.

Leaves are compound, paripinnate, leaflet 3-8 pairs, elliptic-lanceolate, 3-10 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, green with reddish midrib, soft hairs and pointed tip. A pungent odor comes out when the leaves are crushed.   

Flowers are bright yellow, raceme, arising at the leaf axil, 3 cm wide, short peduncled, a few together or a pair. Sepals 5, petals 5. It blooms mainly in May-July. Full blooming flowers can be seen in the morning.

Fruits are pods, quite long, 8-14 cm long, tip blunted, 4-5 together, minutely hairy, dehiscent. Seeds 25-30. Flowers and fruits can be seen at a time in differe…

Chakunda or Sickle senna, Senna tora

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Chakunda or Sickle senna (Senna tora, family: Caesalpiniaceae) is an annual erect herb with branches, attaining a height of 1-1.5 m. Stem is hairless, slender or angular. Though the upperside of the stem is smoothless and has linear marks and somewhat odorous. It is a common herb in Bangladesh, found beside road, in fallow land, cropfield and waterside area. Sometimes it is found standing in water also. It is also found in the countries of South and Southeast Asia.

Other names: Kalkasham, Teraj, Eraj, Eraich, Gol eski, Choto kolkashundey (Though Senna sophera is also called by the same name by folks of the country).

The leaves look a lot like Dadmordon (Senna alata) but much smaller in size. These are compound, leaflet 3 pairs at the end of long pinnae, last pair is larger than others. Leaflet is obovate, 2.5-5 cm long and 1.5-2.5 cm wide with soft hairs, petioled, opposite.

Flowers are yellow and borne in pair at leaf axil, 1.5 cm wide. Petals 5, sepals 5. Flowering occurs in May-July. …

Korobi or Oleander, Nerium oleander

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Korobi or Oleander (Nerium oleander, family: Apocynaceae) is an evergreen shrub with branches, attaining a height of 2-3 m. The whole tree is full of milky latex. It is one of the best flowering garden plants in the tropical world. It is commonly seen in backyards, gardens, parks and botanical gardens in Bangladesh. It is also found in some countries of South and East Asia and in Mediterranean region.

Leaves are dark green, linear-lanceolate, 10-15 cm long and 1-2 cm wide, opposite or entire, thick, narrowed at base and end. The upright leaves are mostly gathered at the end of the branches. 

Flowers are showy and nice scented; red, pink or white in color, 3-5 cm wide, borne at the end of branches much in number. The number of petals may vary from plant  to plant. Single layered flowers contain 5 petals. These bloom mainly in summer to rainy season. These can be seen round the year too. 

Fruit is a pod, linear-slender, 6-20 cm, dehiscent. Seeds are poisonous.

Propagation is caused by air l…

Shurma or Hophead barleria, Baleria lupulina

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Shurma or Hophead barleria (Baleria lupulina, family: Acanthaceae) is thorny shrub with numerous branches, attaining a height of 1-1.5 m. Stem is glabrous. Branches and young shoots are reddish and quadrangular. The hard and pointed thorns are originated from the leaf axil. It is found in gardens, medicinal gardens and botanical gardens in Bangladesh. It is also found in the countries of tropical Asia and tropical Africa.  
Other names:Kata bishollakoroni, Katabishala, Shonomukhi, Shorno jhinti.

Leaves are dark green, linear-lanceolate, 7-15 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, midrib reddish, short petioled.


Flowers are yellow having overlapping bracts, borne on terminal inflorescene; corolla is tubular, 3 cm long, lobes 5. Flower blooms in autumn. 

Fruit is a capsule, 2-seeded. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds and cuttings.

It is used in cold, fever, weakness, pain and swelling. Leaves are used in dogbites and snakebites. These are also used in rheumatic pain also.

The quadrangular and …

Makal or Mahakal, Trichosanthes tricuspidata

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Makal or Mahakal (Trichosanthes tricuspidata, family: Cucurbitaceae) is a woody climber with tendril and branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The multiangular-branched plant climbs up very far by holding any tree in the forest. It is found in the hilly areas as well as plain forests and village thickets in Bangladesh. It is also found in Indian subcontinent, Australia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia. 
According to ancient Sanskrit scriptures the other names of the plant are Bishala, Mohendro-baruni. 

In the Himalayas it has been seen at an altitude of 5000 feet. There are many refferences to the fruit in Bangla and Sanskrit literature. Someone is very nice to look at but he/she is useless--writers usually jokingly give examples of this fruit. Its roots and attractive fruits are packed with medicinal properties. 

The size and shape of leaves may vary. These are multilobbed or trilobbed, alternate, rough in both sides, 5-12 cm long, petioled, cordate at base, deeply d…

Folsha or Falsa, Grewia asiatica

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Folsha or Falsa (Grewia asiatica, family: Tiliaceae) is a small-sized deciduous tree with short trunk and drooping branches, attaining a height of 6-7 m. Young shoots are pubescent. Bark is rough and grey in color. It is a little known tree of edible fruit in the country. The spectacular young leaves are reddish and this feature is enough to identify the tree.


Other names: Shukri, Dhamani. 
It is found in village thickets as well as hilly areas of Bangladesh. It is also found in some countries of South and Southeast Asia.

Leaves are heart-shaped, broadly ovate, 6-20 cm long and 8-10 cm wide, cordate at the base, dented, tip slightly elongated, alternate.


Flowers are small, 2 cm in diameter, yellow-colored, in axillary clusters. Petals 5, sepals 5. Sepals are twice as large as the petals. Flowering occurs in March-April.


Fruits are drupe, round, 10-12 mm across, dark purple when ripe. The taste of the fruit is basically sour, but slightly sweet too. The fruit ripens one month after flow…

Modhunasini or Gurmar, Gymnema sylvestre

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Modhunasini or Gurmar (Gymnema sylvestre, family: Apocynaceae) is a woody and twining climber, covering with dense and yellow-colored hairs in young shoots and branches. The extensive plant is usually found covring the bushes or climbing a large tree in the forest, specially in the monsoon forests. 
Other names: Ajaballi, Ajaghandini, karnika, Mesh-shringi.

It is originated in India. It is also found in Sri Lanka and South Africa too. In Bangladesh it can be seen in medicinal gardens and botanical gardens.

Tomentose leaves are ovate-elliptic, opposite, cordate at base, tip pointed, 3-6 cm long and 1.5-2 cm wide, petioled.

Flowers are axillary, yellowish, tiny, campanulate, fleshy, 4 mm in diameter, peduncled. Flowering occurs in the rainy season. Fruits are slender, knife-shaped, dehiscent, 3-9 cm long. The plant is propagated by seeds, air layering and cuttings

The whole plant is full of medicinal properties. It is used in jaundice, piles, cough, asthma, bronchitis, heart diseses etc.…