Shonalu or Golden shower tree (Cassia fistula, family: Fabaceae) is a medium-sized deciduous tree attaining a height of 8-10 m. This fast growing tree is native to South and Southeast Asia. As an ornamental flowering tree it is planted in gardens, parks and roadsides in Bangladesh as well as Asian countries.
Common names: Shonail, Shonalu, Bandor-lathi, Flame of the forest, Golden shower tree.
Leaves are compound, rachis 10-35 cm long. Leaflets are ovate, 8-15 cm long and 3-7 cm wide.
Flowers are yellow in pedunculate racemes, 40-50 cm long. Flower is showy, big, 4-6 cm across. Flowering season is early summer (April).
Fruit is a legume, 30-60 cm long, black in color. Pungent odorous fruit contains several seeds. Monkeys used to play with the sticky fruits of cassia fistula and for this reason the local people of Bangladesh called it Bandor-lathi (Monkey stick). Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.
The gum, seeds and bark of cassia fistula are used in skin diseases and snake poison. Fruit is effective in constipation. It has strong and very durable wood. In Bangladesh, the tree is very renowned for its fabulous golden flowers. Cassia fistula is the national flower of Thailand.
Buddho narikel or Buddha coconut ( Pterygota alata , family: Sterculiaceae) is a large erect tree with branches, reaching up to 50 m in height. Trunk is huge and stout. Bark is smooth and grey in color. The deciduous mighty tree is found in the hilly forests of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet of Bangladesh. The tree is also found in South India, Sikkim and Andaman Islands. In Bangladesh it is planted in parks and botanical gardens as an ornamental plant. Leaves are dark green, big, cordate, glabrous, 10-25 cm long and 7-20 cm wide, alternate; long-petioled: 10-14 cm long. Midrib and veins are clearly visible. Flowers are reddish inside, outside brownish yellow, scented, petals 5. It produces flowers in spring. Fruit is big, round, hard, dehiscent, dark brown in color. Seeds are winged, numerous. Fruit pulp tastes almost like Coconut. The native plant is propagated by seeds. Seed is edible too. It can be taken after frying. A
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Lal shonail or Pink shower ( Cassia javanica , family: Fabaceae) is a medium-sized deciduous tree with knotted and shortened trunk, attaining a height of 12-16 m. Bark is grey. Young shoots are silky. Its spreading branches sometimes almost touch the ground towards the peripherry. It is an ideal tree for planting in a large garden. It is found in the hilly forests of Sylhet and Chattogram in Bangladesh. As a beautiful ornamental tree, it is planted in parks, botanical gardens, gardens and roadsides in the country. It is also found in various tropical countries of Asia. At the beginning of summer, the canopy of the tree is covered with flowers in such a way that it looks as if a pink fountain is waiting to fall. In order to get colorful colors in summer, you have to plant this tree in the garden with Jarul , Krishnochura , Shonalu and Konokchura . Leaves are spectacular. These are compound, 12-24; leaflets elliptic-oblong, 2.5-4.5 cm and 2-3.5 cm wide. Flowers are scented, pink