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Showing posts from 2021

Charchara or Erect flemingia, Flemingia stricta

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Charchara or Erect flemingia ( Flemingia stricta , family: Fabaceae) is an tall, woody shrub with trifoliate leaves, attaining a height of 3-4 m. The younger parts of the plant are hairy and somewhat triangular. The much branching shrub is found in the shady and damp places of plains and hilly areas of central part and Chattogram and Chattogram Hill Tracts and greater Sylhet in Bangladesh. Outside the country, it will be seen in India, Myanmar, Bhutan, China as well as some countries of Southeast Asia. Other names: Sai kheu (Marma) Leaves are trifoliate, large, oblong-lanceolae, opposite, glabrous or slightly hairy, 15-28 cm long and 6-10 cm wide, narrow at both ends, tip pointed; petioled, 5-10 cm long, triangular.  Flowers are Pea-like, purplish, with shortened pedicels. Flowers 1-1.5 cm long, on 7-10 cm-lengthed raceme inflorescence, dense-flowered. Flowering occurs in the spring (Feb-Apr).   Fruit is a pod, oblong, 10-15 mm long, almost glabrous, usually bi-seeded. Seeds are sub

Bon nil or Wild indigo, Tephrosia purpurea

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Bon nil or Wild indigo ( Tephrosia purpurea , Family: Fabaceae) is an annual or biennial leafy and bushy herb or undershrub with spreading branches, attaining a height of .75-1 m. Branches are glabrous or slightly hairy. It is found in thickets and forests all over the country. It is also found in tropical Africa, Indian subcontinent, some countries of Southeast Asia and some parts of Australia.     Other names: Lohamari, Jongli nil, Buno nil (Bang); Purple tephrosia, Fish poison (Eng). Leaves are light green, pinnately compound, 6-10 cm long, leaflets 15-21, paripinnate or imparipinnate, opposite, ovate-oblanceolate, glabrous above, silky hairs bebeath. Flowers are Pea-like, 2-lipped, purple, 8-10 mm long, The corolla is two times longer than the calyx. 2-4 flowers in axillary inflorescence (6-18 cm long). It flowers in autumn (Sep-Nov). Fruit is legume, 4-6 cm long, linear, slightly curved at the top, dark brown when dry, dehiscent. Seeds are inedible, 5-9. Flowers and fruits can

Tulsi or Sacred basil, Ocimum tenuiflorum

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Tulsi o r Sacred basil ( Ocimum tenuiflorum , family: Lamiaceae) is an odorous perennial herb or undershrub with many branches attaining a height of 1-1.5 m. Almost whole body of the plant is covered with hairs. Stem is woody, furrowed and quadrangular. Like many other herbs (Dhutra, Begun, Pepper) the plant can be purple. It is found everywhere in Bangladesh as a medicinal as well as sacred plant to Hindu community. It has spread across a huge global range, extending from the Arabian Peninsula to East Asia as well as Pacific Islands to Australia.  Other names: Kalo tulsi (Bang); Tulasi, Ajaka (Sans); Holy basil (Eng).  Leaves are strongly scented, green or purple, hairy, ovate-broadly elliptical, 2-5 cm long and 1-1.5 cm wide, opposite, irregularly dented, petiole 2-3 cm long.  Flowers are tiny, white or purplish, 3-8 on terminal inflorescence (12-25 cm long). Corolla bilabiate, petals 5, calyx divided into two parts, Stamens 4. It produces flower almost round the year.  Fruit is n

Bon akra or Burbush, Triumfetta rhomboidea

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Bon akra or Burbush ( Triumfetta rhomboidea , family: Tiliaceae) is an annual or perennial undershrub with woody stem and few branches, attaining a height of 1-1.5 m. Bark is smooth and brownish. Young shoots are reddish and covered with soft hairs. It is found beside roads, fallow lands and slopes of hill. Its origin is probably tropical America. It is now well-adapted to tropical Africa and Asia. However it has been identified as an invasive plant all over the world. Common names: Bon okra (Bang); Chinese bur, Burweed (Eng). Leaves are variable, ovate-lanceolate or 3-lobed, 3-10 cm long. 3-7 veins, acute at end, base rounded, irregularly dented, petiole long, alternate. Flowers are in terminal inflorescence, 3-4, yellow. Petals 5, sepals 5.   Fruit is bristly capsule, rounded or ovoid, dark brown, tiny, covered with thorn-like hairs, dehiscent. Its dried fruits get stuck in the body of human or cattle due to this kind of hairs. Its Bangla name 'Bon akra' is probably derive

Kath-shola or Budda pea, Aeschynomene indica

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Kath-shola or Budda pea ( Aeschynomene indica , Family: Fabaceae) is a woddy annual or perennial erect undershrub with some narrow and slender branches and sensative leaves, attaining a height of 1 to 1.5 m. Stem is corky, greenish and glabrous. It loves to grow near the water bodies and in ditches, fallow lands and muddy soil in Bangladesh. It is also found throughout Asia. Other names: Shola (Bang); Indian jointvetch (Eng).  Leaves are light green, compound, bipinnate; blades 40-60, tiny, linear-oblong, alternate, petiole short, no veins except the midrib. In the absence of sunlight, the leaves curl up like most other members of Fabaceae. Flowering occurs in rainy season. These are in axillary raceme, 2-4, tiny, reddish yellow, 1-1.5 cm long. Sepals 5 with connecting 2-lipped calyx. Upper part of the calyx is entire, lower entire or 3-lobed. Corolla caducous, two times larger than calyx. Peduncle and pedicel are glutinous and slightly hairy.     Fruit is legume, linear, smooth or

Thankuni or Asiatic pennywort, Centella asiatica

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Thankuni  or  Asiatic pennywort  ( Centella asiatica , family: Umbelliferae) is an aquatic perennial herb with runner or stolon whose roots and leaves grows from each of its node. Stems are slender or slightly angular, green, sometimes reddish, soft, juicy and slightly hairy when young. The prostate or creeping plant is found everywhere near the water bodies, ditches and wet soils in Bangladesh. It is one of the traditional medicinal plants of the Indian subcontinent. The plant is native to South and Southeast Asia. Nowadays it has adapted itself to other tropics. Other names: Thulkuri, Bromhobuti, Bromhokuti, Bromhoruti, Dolmanik, Dolpata (Bang); Manduki, Mandukparni (Sans); Indian pennywort, Spadeleaf (Eng). Leaves are in clusters, 1-4, green, blade rounded with regularly serrated edge and palmate veins, 1-3 cm long and 1.5-6 cm wide, cordate at base, petoles are up to 10 cm long. Flower are small, white-reddish, 3-6 on umbel inflorescence with long peduncle. Propagation of the aqua

Shonkorjota or Prishniparni, Uraria picta

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Shonkorjota or Prishniparni ( Uraria picta , family: Fabaceae) is a semi-woody erect herb with some velvety branches, attaining a height of 1-2 m. Its flowers and leaves are beautiful and bracts are stunning. The perennial undershrub is very importantly mentioned in the Ayurvedic scriptures as an medicinal plant. The plant itself is quite beautiful. It is found in fallow lands, village thickets and medicinal gardens in Bangladesh. Outside the country, it is found from some countries of tropical Africa and Asia to Australia.  The plant can be easily identified by its unique leaves. The midrib of blade has long white spot from the tip to the base, which is called variegated. However, complete green leaves may also be found in some plants of this species. These are linear-oblong, imparipinnate (solitary blade at the top of a pinna), 3-9 blades, firm and coriaceous, 8-20 cm long, base rounded, apex acute. The upper part is hairless, lower part covered with rough hairs. Petiole 3-6 cm lon

Shilbhadi or Grey downy balsam, Garuga pinnata

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Shilbhadi or Grey downy balsam ( Garuga pinnat a, family: Burseraceae) is a medium to large-sized tree with rounded crown, attaining a height of 20-40 m. The bark of the deciduous tree is thick and grey or brown-colored. Young shoots are pubescent. Often mature trees have buttress roots. It is mainly found in the hilly forests of Sylhet and Chattogram division. Outside the country it can be seen in some countries of South and Southeast Asia. Other names: Bhadi, Nilbhadi, Jiolbhadi, Pahari jiga, Jum, Dabudabi. Leaves are compound, 12-35 cm long; leaflets 7-10 pairs, 8-10 cm long and 2-3 cm wide, short-petioled, opposite, ovate-lanceolate, dented, tip elongated and almost blunt. Young leaves are reddish. Leaves fall off in winter and new foliage arrives in spring.  Flowers appear in spring with the new foliage in large pubescent and compound panicle. These are tiny, yellowish, with tubular calyx. Flowers are 5-merous (petals and sepals number 5). Fruits are drupe, round, blackish when

Dulichapa or Wild magnolia, Magnolia pterocarpa

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Dulichapa or Wild magnolia ( Magnolia pterocarpa , family: Magnoliaceae) is an only wild Magnolia of Bangladesh, found in the hilly forests of greater Sylhet and Chattogram and Chattogram Hill Tracts. Outside the country the leafy tree can be found in the North-eastern part of Indian subcontinent and Myanmar. The large evergreen tree can get a height of 15-25 m with a nice rounded canopy. Bark is grey. Young parts are covered with yellowish-brown soft hairs.  Other names: Anda chapa (Bang), Nag champaka (Sans). Leaves are large, pale green, 20-40 cm long and 6-10 cm wide, obovate-oblong, coriaceous, mature leaves are glabrous, tip pointed or blunted, petiole, 3-5 cm long, veins 12-18. Flowers are terminal, big, showy, white, scented like most other members of the family; 5-8 cm across, bisexual. Pedicel is thick, 5 cm across and 5 cm long. Petals 6, thick. Sepals 3, outside greenish, inside white. These are caducous, turn brown before falling off the flowers. Flower-buds are beautiful

Kopi-pana or Kariba weed, Salvinia molesta

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Kopi-pana or Kariba weed ( Salvinia molesta , family: Salviniaceae) is a completely free-floating fern with whriled leaves, attaining a length of 30 cm. Its submerged brown-colored leaves look a lot like roots. It usually prefers to live in large colonies in stagnant water. Its original home is Brazil. The species is now well adapted to the tropics of the world. The perennial aquatic herb has been considered as an invasive plant in many countries.  Other names:   Aquarium watermoss, Water velvet, Giant azolla, Giant salvinia, African pyle, Australian azolla. Its stem is located horizontally under the water and three whorled fronds (leaves) emerge from each node of that. Fronds are light green or yellowish green, oblong-obovate, 2.5-5 cm long, opposite. The sumerged one is about 25 cm long, looking like roots. The plant is a fern, so it does not produce flowers or fruits. So it has to take another process to propagate. Egg-shaped sporocarps, developed in elongated chains among the sub

Lohakath or Burma Ironwood, Xylia xylocarpa

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Lohakath or Burma Ironwood ( Xylia xylocarpa , family: Fabaceae) is a large-sized deciduous tree with straight, cylindrical and huge trunk, attaining a height of 40 m. Its trunk can be up to 60 cm in diameter. Bark is rough and thick but brittle, brown-colored. Young shoots are covered with brown hair. Its wood is very hard, heavy and durable. Heartwood is reddish. It is found in the hilly forests, especially in greater Sylhet in Bangladesh. Outside the country the giant tree is found in India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia.  Leaves are compound, leaflets per pinnae 5-7 pairs; leaflets elliptic-oblong, 3-15 cm long and 3-6 cm wide, shiny, green, short-petioled, opposite, tip pointed.   Flowers are scented, small, yellowish, on long peduncled heads. The bisexual flowers occur in March-April. Fruits are pods, 9-15 cm long, brownish, dehiscent, 6-10-seeded. Seeds are consumed as vegetable somewhere. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds