Apang or Prickly chafflower (Achyranthes aspera, family: Amaranthaceae) is an annual herb with woody base, 1-1.5 m height. Terete to quadrangular stem is straight, hairy and not much-branched. It is considered as a crop weed in the country.
Other names: Biral achra, Bilai-khami, Chirchita, Upot lyangra, Bilai-khamchi (Bangla); Snake tail (English).
Leaves are green, simple, ovate-oblong, 10-12 cm long and 6-7 cm wide, opposite, short-petioled.
Flowers are small, green, on terminal spike inflorescence. Stamens 5, pistils 5. The inflorescence is 10-40 cm long, hard with stipules. Flowering occurs in late autumn.
Fruit is nutlet, hard with wings. Seeds are brown, sub-cylindrical. It is propagated by seeds. Dry seeds can spread in other ways besides the help of wind. By touching human or animals body they spread far beyond too.
The erect herb is a well-known folk medicinal plant in Indian subcontinent. It is mentioned in the ancient Ayurveda scriptures. Its decoction is used in stangury, dysentery, diarrhea, rheumatism, hydrophobia, jaundice, heart and skin diseases. It is also used in the worship of Hindu religion. It is found everywhere, especially in fallow land in Bangladesh. It is found in tropical and subtropical parts of the world too.
Kaat-badam or Bengal almond ( Terminalia catappa , family: Combretaceae) is a large deciduous tree with spreading horizontal branches. It is found in the tropical Asia, Africa and Australia. Common names: Katbadam, Deshi badam, Bengal almond, Indian almond, Tropical almond. During winter the beautiful green leaves of terminalia catappa turn to red. Leaves are simple, 15-25 cm long and 8-15 cm wide, obcordate, alternate or whorled. Flowers appear in the summer. Flowers are small, grey white, clustered on axillary or terminal spike. Flowers on the upper part of the inflorescence are male and those are on the lower part are bisexual. Fruit is elliptical, 4-6 cm long, red when ripe. The tree with nice canopy is planted in avenues and gardens as ornamental tree in Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.
Tulsi o r Sacred basil ( Ocimum tenuiflorum , family: Lamiaceae) is an odorous perennial herb or undershrub with many branches attaining a height of 1-15 m. Almost whole body of the plant is covered with hairs. Stem is woody furrowed and quadrangular. Like many other herbs (Dhutra, Begun, Pepper) the plant can be purple. It is found everywhere in Bangladesh as a medicinal as well as sacred plant to Hindu community. It has spread across a huge global range, extending from the Arabian Peninsula to East Asia as well as Pacific Islands to Australia. Other names: Kalo tulsi (Bang); Tulasi, Ajaka (Sans); Holy basil (Eng). Leaves are strongly scented, green or purple, hairy, ovate-broadly elliptical, 2-5 cm long and 1-1.5 cm wide, opposite, irregularly dented, petiole 2-3 cm long. Flowers are tiny, white or purplish, 3-8 on terminal inflorescence (12-25 cm long). Corolla bilabiate, petals 5, calyx divided into two parts, Stamens 4. It produces flower almost round the year. Fruit is nut
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis