Boga or White tephrosia (Tephrosia candida, Fabaceae) is an erect shrub with branches attaining a height of 4 m. Upright branches grow from the stem base. Woody stem is velvety, greyish. In Bangladesh, it is found in the tea gardens of Moulovibazar and in parks and botanical gardens.
Other names: Medla, Bogui.
Leaves are pale green, compound, pinnate; leaflets 9-11 pairs, opposite.
Flowers are borne in terminal or axillary Inflorescences, 20-40 cm long. Flowers are are brilliant white, sometimes yellow or pink; petals clawed, round, wings ovate, sightly adnate, 2-2.5 cm long and 1 cm wide. Calix is bell-shaped. Flowering season is autumn. The species name 'Candida' is kept due to its pure white-colored flowers.
Fruits are like beans, linear, covered with brown hair, 8-15 cm long and 1 cm wide; dehiscent, 8-15-seeded. Flowers and fruits can be seen at a time. Propagation is caused by seeds.
Leaves are used for relief from cough and asthma. Seeds contain rutin, rotanone, source of potent insecticide. It helps to increase fertility of soil. Leaves are very useful as fodder. Leaves, bark and roots are used as insecticide and fish poison.
The shrub is found in India, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar, China, Malesia, New Zealand, West Indies and Hawaii islands. Although it is a beautiful white flowering plant, its popularity has not increased in our country yet.
Kaat-badam or Bengal almond ( Terminalia catappa , family: Combretaceae) is a large deciduous tree with spreading horizontal branches. It is found in the tropical Asia, Africa and Australia. Common names: Katbadam, Deshi badam, Bengal almond, Indian almond, Tropical almond. During winter the beautiful green leaves of terminalia catappa turn to red. Leaves are simple, 15-25 cm long and 8-15 cm wide, obcordate, alternate or whorled. Flowers appear in the summer. Flowers are small, grey white, clustered on axillary or terminal spike. Flowers on the upper part of the inflorescence are male and those are on the lower part are bisexual. Fruit is elliptical, 4-6 cm long, red when ripe. The tree with nice canopy is planted in avenues and gardens as ornamental tree in Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.
Tulsi o r Sacred basil ( Ocimum tenuiflorum , family: Lamiaceae) is an odorous perennial herb or undershrub with many branches attaining a height of 1-15 m. Almost whole body of the plant is covered with hairs. Stem is woody furrowed and quadrangular. Like many other herbs (Dhutra, Begun, Pepper) the plant can be purple. It is found everywhere in Bangladesh as a medicinal as well as sacred plant to Hindu community. It has spread across a huge global range, extending from the Arabian Peninsula to East Asia as well as Pacific Islands to Australia. Other names: Kalo tulsi (Bang); Tulasi, Ajaka (Sans); Holy basil (Eng). Leaves are strongly scented, green or purple, hairy, ovate-broadly elliptical, 2-5 cm long and 1-1.5 cm wide, opposite, irregularly dented, petiole 2-3 cm long. Flowers are tiny, white or purplish, 3-8 on terminal inflorescence (12-25 cm long). Corolla bilabiate, petals 5, calyx divided into two parts, Stamens 4. It produces flower almost round the year. Fruit is nut
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis