Bangladesh is a rich land of biodiversity. About 6000 species of plants are gathered in such a small area of 147570 sq km.
I am trying to introduce the flora of Bangladesh in a pack from the naturalist view, not from the eye of plant-expert. For this, there will be some unwanted mistakes.
Needless to say, pics used in this site are all original and snapped by me. The information are gathered here from the personal notes, collected books and from different websites.
Boro bet, Osier-like rattan palm, Calamaus viminalis
Boro bet or Osier-like rattan palm (Calamaus viminalis, family: Araceae) is a clump forming spiny large creeper, occasionally takes the form of bushes. Spines are flat and very long. By the support of other plants it climbs. Stem is slender, like most of the canes; brownish and covered with thorny sheath.
It is found mainly in the hill slopes of Chottogram, Chottogram Hill Tracts and Sylhet. It is also found in the Sal forests of Bangladesh. It has spiny climbing stem or tendrils to climb on; that will be 2-3 m long. Leaf sheath whitish green, pubescent, densely covered with hook-like stout spines. Rachis 1-2 m long. Leaflets are green, lanceolate, 30-55 in per side, alternate.
In Sal forest of Gajipur
Inflorescence is very long, 2-3 m, flagellate. Male and female flowers are borne in different inflorescence; female is shorter than male.
Fruits appear in cluster; berry, usually globose, yellowish or whitish, almost 1 cm in diameter, pointed end, covered with scale-like particles one after another; usually single-seeded. Fruits are edible. Children are very fond of it.
Flowers and fruits can be found round the year. The propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.
Handicrafts, tools as well as furniture are made from its cane. Young shoots can be eaten. The cane is found in India, Thailand, China, Myanmar and the other countries of Southeast Asia.
Til or Sesame ( Sesamum indicum , family: Pedaliaceae) is an annual herb with hollow stem and branches attaining a height of 50 to 100 cm. Sesame or Til seed is one of the oldest oil-seed crops o f t h e w o r l d. The plant is originated in Africa. It is cultivated as crop throughout the tropical world. Leaves are opposite, broad lanceolate, dark green, 4- 14 cm long with an entire margin . Flower is hairy, white or light pink, borne on leaf axil; 3-5 cm long with a four-lobed mouth. In Bangladesh, i t blooms generally in April-May. Sesame fruit is a rectangular capsule, 2-7 cm long, covered with tiny soft hair . Tiler khaja, a type of sweetened food made from sesame seed is very popular in Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. Seeds are usually off-white in c o l o r. Sesame is energizing, carminative and diuretic. It increases breast milk and sperms in male. It has been found useful in dyspepsia a
Shimul or Red silk-cotton ( Bombax ceiba , family: Malvaceae) is one of the most common trees that found in Bangladesh. This deciduous straight tall tree with thorny trunk and spreading crown is also found in tropical regions of Asia. In Bangladesh, the tree is planted in parks and on highways and beside national monuments for its gorgeous fire-red flowers. It can reach a height up to 60 m. Common names: Shimul, Red silk-cotton, Red cotton tree. Leaves are large, spreading, glabrous, digitate, leaflets lanceolate, entire, 10-15 cm long; petiole is up to 20 cm long. It blooms in spring (March-April). Flowers red, numerous, appearing when the tree is bare of leaves, stamens numerous arranged in five outer bundles and one middle bundle. Fruit capsules, woody valves. 10-13 cm in length. Seeds smooth, black or grey embedded in long white wool. Oh! the flame of the forest! Young plant is used in dysentery, cough, plethora, malnutrition and sexu
Jongli badam or Bastard poon tree ( Sterculia foetida , family: Sterculuaceae) is a large deciduous tree, up to 20 m in height, with branches arranged in whorls and spreading horizontally. Trunk is robust and straight. There are eye-like glands on the grey-colored bark. The tree has some resembles with Shimul . The children are in the womb! Leaves are digitately compound, leaflets 5-8, crowded at the end of branches, elliptic-lanceolate, tip elongated, acuminate, 10-18 cm long and 4-5 cm wide, petiole is very long, about 20 cm, though the length of leaflets are very short, almost sessile. Flowers are red-yellow or light purple, borne on a axillary panicles. Sepals 5. Flowers bloom is the end of winter or in spring. Although the flowers are beautiful but those have a very unpleasant odour. For this reason, the species have been named foetida