Aknadi or Snake vine (Stephania japonica, family: Menispermaceae) is a creeping perennial herb climbing other plants along with Guloncho, Telakucha, Asam lota and other plants. Its stem is slender and glabrous. Its local name is Nimukha, since the petiole originate from the middle of the leaf. It is found in the Southeast Asia.
Other names: Nimukha, Akondi, Pattha, Makandi, Bemmokopat lota, Bromhokopat, Akandi, Makandi, Muchi-lota, Muchuinda, Pata muchundi, Manik, Ekleti, Muchiani pata, Purno-lota.
One can easily detect the twining climber by its shield-like leaves. They are entire, green, cordate, sometimes almost triangular, round at the base and acute at the end; glabrous, 5-15 cm long, petiole long.
Flowers are very small and very deciduous, clustered on the top of axillary inflorescence. Flowers bloom in summer.
The female flowers are whitish and the males are yellowish.
Fruit is a drupe, almost 1 cm in diameter, globose, green when raw, red when ripe, curved-seeded. It is propagated by seeds.
The plant is used as herbal medicine in many diseases. It is used in cholera, dysentery, cough, pain and leucorrhoea. It is also used in birth control and postnatal care. Its a beautiful leafy climber. It can be planted in parks and gardens. Although it is available everywhere in Bangladesh.
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Tulsi o r Sacred basil ( Ocimum tenuiflorum , family: Lamiaceae) is an odorous perennial herb or undershrub with many branches attaining a height of 1-1.5 m. Almost whole body of the plant is covered with hairs. Stem is woody, furrowed and quadrangular. Like many other herbs (Dhutra, Begun, Pepper) the plant can be purple. It is found everywhere in Bangladesh as a medicinal as well as sacred plant to Hindu community. It has spread across a huge global range, extending from the Arabian Peninsula to East Asia as well as Pacific Islands to Australia. Other names: Kalo tulsi (Bang); Tulasi, Ajaka (Sans); Holy basil (Eng). Leaves are strongly scented, green or purple, hairy, ovate-broadly elliptical, 2-5 cm long and 1-1.5 cm wide, opposite, irregularly dented, petiole 2-3 cm long. Flowers are tiny, white or purplish, 3-8 on terminal inflorescence (12-25 cm long). Corolla bilabiate, petals 5, calyx divided into two parts, Stamens 4. It produces flower almost round the year. Fruit is n
Makal or Mahakal ( Trichosanthes tricuspidata , family: Cucurbitaceae) is a woody climber with tendril and branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The multiangular-branched plant climbs up very far by holding any tree in the forest. It is found in the hilly areas as well as plain forests and village thickets in Bangladesh. It is also found in Indian subcontinent, Australia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia. According to ancient Sanskrit scriptures the other names of the plant are Bishala, Mohendro-baruni. In the Himalayas it has been seen at an altitude of 5000 feet. There are many refferences to the fruit in Bangla and Sanskrit literature. Someone is very nice to look at but he/she is useless--writers usually jokingly give examples of this fruit. Its roots and attractive fruits are packed with medicinal properties. The size and shape of leaves may vary. These are multilobed or trilobed, alternate, rough in both sides, 5-12 cm long, petioled, cor