Amloki or Amla (Phyllanthus emblica, family: Pyllanthaceae) is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree with branches attaining a height of 6-14 m. The plant is commercially cultivated in Bangladesh as well as Indian subcontinent. Amloki contains more vitamin C than any other fruits in the world except Barbados cherry.
Common names: Amla, Anola, Indian gooseberry, Emblic myrobalan.
Flowers are very small, yellowish, crowded towards the lower portion of the branchlets. Flower blooms in March-April.
Leaves are feathery, small and linear. Fruit is globose, light green, slightly transparent. Ripe fruit is yellowish; seed 6, blackish.
Propagation is caused by seeds and by cuttings. Usually 6-7 years old plant starts giving fruits and the fruiting continues for 30-40 years. The fruit tastes not only sour but tastes bitter and sweet too.
The plant is grown in orchard for its valuable fruits, rich in medicinal substances. Fruit is diuretic, purgative and anti-dandruff. It is used in constipation, diarrhea and dysentery, dyspepsia, gastric acidity, leucorrhoea, insomnia, myopia and cough. The original home of the tree is South-east Asia.
It is mentioned in Ayurvedic script as one of the member of Triphala. The other two are Horitoki and Bohera.
Jongli badam or Bastard poon tree ( Sterculia foetida , family: Sterculuaceae) is a large deciduous tree, up to 20 m in height, with branches arranged in whorls and spreading horizontally. Trunk is robust and straight. There are eye-like glands on the grey-colored bark. The tree has some resembles with Shimul . The children are in the womb! Leaves are digitately compound, leaflets 5-8, crowded at the end of branches, elliptic-lanceolate, tip elongated, acuminate, 10-18 cm long and 4-5 cm wide, petiole is very long, about 20 cm, though the length of leaflets are very short, almost sessile. Flowers are red-yellow or light purple, borne on a axillary panicles. Sepals 5. Flowers bloom is the end of winter or in spring. Although the flowers are beautiful but those have a very unpleasant odour. For this reason, the species have been named foetida
Makal or Mahakal ( Trichosanthes tricuspidata , family: Cucurbitaceae) is a woody climber with tendril and branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The multiangular-branched plant climbs up very far by holding any tree in the forest. It is found in the hilly areas as well as plain forests and village thickets in Bangladesh. It is also found in Indian subcontinent, Australia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia. According to ancient Sanskrit scriptures the other names of the plant are Bishala, Mohendro-baruni. In the Himalayas it has been seen at an altitude of 5000 feet. There are many refferences to the fruit in Bangla and Sanskrit literature. Someone is very nice to look at but he/she is useless--writers usually jokingly give examples of this fruit. Its roots and attractive fruits are packed with medicinal properties. The size and shape of leaves may vary. These are multilobed or trilobed, alternate, rough in both sides, 5-12 cm long, petioled, cor
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis