Amloki or Amla (Phyllanthus emblica, family: Pyllanthaceae) is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree with branches attaining a height of 6-14 m. The plant is commercially cultivated in Bangladesh as well as Indian subcontinent. Amloki contains more vitamin C than any other fruits in the world except Barbados cherry.
Common names: Amla, Anola, Indian gooseberry, Emblic myrobalan.
Flowers are very small, yellowish, crowded towards the lower portion of the branchlets. Flower blooms in March-April.
Leaves are feathery, small and linear. Fruit is globose, light green, slightly transparent. Ripe fruit is yellowish; seed 6, blackish.
Propagation is caused by seeds and by cuttings. Usually 6-7 years old plant starts giving fruits and the fruiting continues for 30-40 years. The fruit tastes not only sour but tastes bitter and sweet too.
The plant is grown in orchard for its valuable fruits, rich in medicinal substances. Fruit is diuretic, purgative and anti-dandruff. It is used in constipation, diarrhea and dysentery, dyspepsia, gastric acidity, leucorrhoea, insomnia, myopia and cough. The original home of the tree is South-east Asia.
It is mentioned in Ayurvedic script as one of the member of Triphala. The other two are Horitoki and Bohera.
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Deua or Monkey jack ( Artocarpus lacucha , family: Moraceae) a large tree with large spreading crown, of 12-18 m height. The bark of the deciduous tree is grey and coarse. The type of its fruit reminds us of Jackfruit . It is found in South and Southeast Asia. It is one of the most common trees found in Bangladesh. Other names: Delo madar, deyphol, Deuphol, Dehua, Deua cham, Barta, Dalo, Bon kathal. Leaves are broadly elliptic, entire, rough, brittle, 10-30 cm long and 10-18 cm wide, undulate, back hairy, leathery. Flowers are small, without petals. Male and female flowers grow on the same inflorescence. Female inflorescence has pedicel, though the male one has none. The fruits come from the female flowers. Fruit is a syncarp (multiple fruit, which is fleshy), wavy, velvety, bright yellow or orange when ripe, 5-10 cm in diameter. The fruit is sour-tasted but also somewhat sweet. It is eaten raw or pickled. Seed is oblong and white in color. The pl
Kolmi-lota or Water spinach (I pomoea aquatica , family: Convolvulaceae) is an annual floating herb from Morning glory family. It is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, most commonly in East, South and Southeast Asia. Stem is soft and creeping nature. It grows in water or on the edge of water bodies. Common names: Kalmilata, Water spinach, River spinach, Water morning glory, Water convolvulus, Swamp cabbage The hollow stems of ipomoea aquatica are 2-5 meters or more long, rooting at the nodes. Leaves are long-petioled, green, ovate-cordate with pointed apex, 5-15 cm long and 2-8 cm wide , alternate. Flowers are whitish-violet or white, showy, single, axillary, funnel-shaped, 3-5 cm in diameter. Flower bloom s mainly in autumn. Propagation is either by planting cuttings of the stem shoots that will root along nodes or planting the seeds from flowers that produce seed pods. It is useful in pox and in