Durba-ghash or Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon, family: Gramineae) is a perennial grass with cylindrical nodes and internodes. It creeps on ground by creating roots from nodes of stem. Stem (up to 45 cm long) is usually green, sometimes reddish. The creeping herb is a traditional medicinal plant of the Indian subcontinent.
It is found all over the country as a crop weed. It is also found in South and Southeast Asia and The tropical region of Africa. Although its roots do not go deep into the soil, it retains the soil quite well. Otherwise, in a rainy country like ours, it would have been impossible to prevent soil erosion.
Leaves are narrow or linear with pointed tip, pale green, minutly hairy, 2-8 cm long. The leaf ligules are covered with thin white hairs.
Inflorescence is brownish green, divided in to 5 parts, each part 2-5 cm long. Flowering occurs almost round the year. It is propagated by seeds, rhyzome and stolon.
The plant contains triterpenoids, proteins, carbohydrates and many organic acids. It is used as uretic. Leaf juice is used in inflammed tumours, whitlows toothache, eczema, menstruation and to stop bleeding. The plant is also used in syphilis and inflammation of the urethra.
Its roots cannot go deep into the soil. However, being one of the most beautiful grass species, it is planted in garden lawns as an ornamental plant. There are many references in Bengali folklore about this plant. It is an essential element of Hindu worship.
Kaat-badam or Bengal almond ( Terminalia catappa , family: Combretaceae) is a large deciduous tree with spreading horizontal branches. It is found in the tropical Asia, Africa and Australia. Common names: Katbadam, Deshi badam, Bengal almond, Indian almond, Tropical almond. During winter the beautiful green leaves of terminalia catappa turn to red. Leaves are simple, 15-25 cm long and 8-15 cm wide, obcordate, alternate or whorled. Flowers appear in the summer. Flowers are small, grey white, clustered on axillary or terminal spike. Flowers on the upper part of the inflorescence are male and those are on the lower part are bisexual. Fruit is elliptical, 4-6 cm long, red when ripe. The tree with nice canopy is planted in avenues and gardens as ornamental tree in Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.
Tulsi o r Sacred basil ( Ocimum tenuiflorum , family: Lamiaceae) is an odorous perennial herb or undershrub with many branches attaining a height of 1-15 m. Almost whole body of the plant is covered with hairs. Stem is woody furrowed and quadrangular. Like many other herbs (Dhutra, Begun, Pepper) the plant can be purple. It is found everywhere in Bangladesh as a medicinal as well as sacred plant to Hindu community. It has spread across a huge global range, extending from the Arabian Peninsula to East Asia as well as Pacific Islands to Australia. Other names: Kalo tulsi (Bang); Tulasi, Ajaka (Sans); Holy basil (Eng). Leaves are strongly scented, green or purple, hairy, ovate-broadly elliptical, 2-5 cm long and 1-1.5 cm wide, opposite, irregularly dented, petiole 2-3 cm long. Flowers are tiny, white or purplish, 3-8 on terminal inflorescence (12-25 cm long). Corolla bilabiate, petals 5, calyx divided into two parts, Stamens 4. It produces flower almost round the year. Fruit is nut
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis