Asam lota or Bitter vine (Mikania micrantha, family: Asteraceae) is a perennial extensive climber. It can be easily found in fallow lands, crop fields and roadside areas in Bangladesh. It is an invasive species. Usually with the help of a tree it climbed up. In case of small tree it does serious damage.
Other names: Bharoti-lota, Rabon lota, Tara-lota.
Leaves are opposite, green, ovate to cordate, edge sometimes uneven, sometimes wavy, petiole long, sometimes dark green, sometimes pale. The size of the vine or its leaves differ on the basis of soil fertility.
Branched inflorescence comes out from leaf axil. Flower is white or pale white. Each branch contains three to four white flowers. Numerous branches occurs together. Therefore, the flower cluster seems quite large.
It spreads quickly in rainy season. So it causes serious damage to crops then. Especially it does a great damage to Sal forest and Tea plantation. Although it is quite effective to prevent soil erosion.
Fruit is pentagonal, called achene. Its propagation is caused by seeds. In such a way the smart creeper stays with green leaves that it cannot easily be seen. The leaves and young branches are the favourite meal of cattle.
Its leaves and branch contain protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin A, B and C. Leaves are used in pain, allergy and itching. People of Africa eat its leaves as vegetables.
Maloti-lota or Malati ( Aganosma heynei, family: Apocynaceae) is a fast-growing large bushy creeper with woody stem. It is planted in parks, garden and botanical garden in Bangladesh. Its original home is Indian subcontinent. It is the iconic flower of rainy season in the country. Another name: Gondho maloti The starry and pure white flowers, the amazing beauty of the leaves, the strong and long life of the creeper, all in all it is a wonderful plant! It should be considered as an essential flower of the rainy season by the tropical gardeners. Leaves are beautiful, entire, elliptical, opposite, 8 cm long and 4 cm wide, apex acute. Petiole and leaf nerves are reddish or purplish. Through the tendril it can climb up with any support Flowers are pure white, highly scented, clustered on terminal panicle. Sepals 5, petals 5. Petals are twusted rightwards, looks a lot like a Shiuly ( Night jasmine, Nyctanthes arbor-tritis ), about 3 cm in diameter. Fl
Makal or Mahakal ( Trichosanthes tricuspidata , family: Cucurbitaceae) is a woody climber with tendril and branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The multiangular-branched plant climbs up very far by holding any tree in the forest. It is found in the hilly areas as well as plain forests and village thickets in Bangladesh. It is also found in Indian subcontinent, Australia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia. According to ancient Sanskrit scriptures the other names of the plant are Bishala, Mohendro-baruni. In the Himalayas it has been seen at an altitude of 5000 feet. There are many refferences to the fruit in Bangla and Sanskrit literature. Someone is very nice to look at but he/she is useless--writers usually jokingly give examples of this fruit. Its roots and attractive fruits are packed with medicinal properties. The size and shape of leaves may vary. These are multilobed or trilobed, alternate, rough in both sides, 5-12 cm long, petioled, cor
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis