Asam lota or Bitter vine (Mikania micrantha, family: Asteraceae) is a perennial extensive climber. It can be easily found in fallow lands, crop fields and roadside areas in Bangladesh. It is an invasive species. Usually with the help of a tree it climbed up. In case of small tree it does serious damage.
Other names: Bharoti-lota, Rabon lota, Tara-lota.
Leaves are opposite, green, ovate to cordate, edge sometimes uneven, sometimes wavy, petiole long, sometimes dark green, sometimes pale. The size of the vine or its leaves differ on the basis of soil fertility.
Branched inflorescence comes out from leaf axil. Flower is white or pale white. Each branch contains three to four white flowers. Numerous branches occurs together. Therefore, the flower cluster seems quite large.
It spreads quickly in rainy season. So it causes serious damage to crops then. Especially it does a great damage to Sal forest and Tea plantation. Although it is quite effective to prevent soil erosion.
Fruit is pentagonal, called achene. Its propagation is caused by seeds. In such a way the smart creeper stays with green leaves that it cannot easily be seen. The leaves and young branches are the favourite meal of cattle.
Its leaves and branch contain protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin A, B and C. Leaves are used in pain, allergy and itching. People of Africa eat its leaves as vegetables.
Til or Sesame ( Sesamum indicum , family: Pedaliaceae) is an annual herb with hollow stem and branches attaining a height of 50 to 100 cm. Sesame or Til seed is one of the oldest oil-seed crops o f t h e w o r l d. The plant is originated in Africa. It is cultivated as crop throughout the tropical world. Leaves are opposite, broad lanceolate, dark green, 4- 14 cm long with an entire margin . Flower is hairy, white or light pink, borne on leaf axil; 3-5 cm long with a four-lobed mouth. In Bangladesh, i t blooms generally in April-May. Sesame fruit is a rectangular capsule, 2-7 cm long, covered with tiny soft hair . Tiler khaja, a type of sweetened food made from sesame seed is very popular in Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. Seeds are usually off-white in c o l o r. Sesame is energizing, carminative and diuretic. It increases breast milk and sperms in male. It has been found useful in dyspepsia a
Shimul or Red silk-cotton ( Bombax ceiba , family: Malvaceae) is one of the most common trees that found in Bangladesh. This deciduous straight tall tree with thorny trunk and spreading crown is also found in tropical regions of Asia. In Bangladesh, the tree is planted in parks and on highways and beside national monuments for its gorgeous fire-red flowers. It can reach a height up to 60 m. Common names: Shimul, Red silk-cotton, Red cotton tree. Leaves are large, spreading, glabrous, digitate, leaflets lanceolate, entire, 10-15 cm long; petiole is up to 20 cm long. It blooms in spring (March-April). Flowers red, numerous, appearing when the tree is bare of leaves, stamens numerous arranged in five outer bundles and one middle bundle. Fruit capsules, woody valves. 10-13 cm in length. Seeds smooth, black or grey embedded in long white wool. Oh! the flame of the forest! Young plant is used in dysentery, cough, plethora, malnutrition and sexu
Durba-ghash or Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon , family: Gramineae) is a perennial grass with cylindrical nodes and internodes. It creeps on ground by creating roots from nodes of stem. Stem (up to 45 cm long) is usually green, sometimes reddish. The creeping herb is a traditional medicinal plant of the Indian subcontinent. It is found all over the country as a crop weed. It is also found in South and Southeast Asia and The tropical region of Africa. Although its roots do not go deep into the soil, it retains the soil quite well. Otherwise, in a rainy country like ours, it would have been impossible to prevent soil erosion. Leaves are narrow or linear with pointed tip, pale green, minutly hairy, 2-8 cm long. The leaf ligules are covered with thin white hairs. Inflorescence is brownish green, divided in to 5 parts, each part 2-5 cm long. Flowering occurs almost round the year. It is propagated by seeds, rhyzome and stolon. The plant contains triterpe