Shaluk or Blue water lily (Nymphaea nouchali, family: Nymphaceae) is an aquatic plant grows from underwater soil. The plant is found in ponds, canals, beels and jheels everywhere in Bangladesh along with White water lily, Keshordam, Water spinach, Bladderwort and other aquatic plants.
Leaves are shiny green, purplish or reddish beneath, round or ovate, irregularly serrated, 15-32 cm long and 10-25 cm wide, floating on water. The length of petiole and pedicel increases with the rise of water level.
Flower is purplish and slightly scented. Petals 10-30, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, acute, arranged in three layers. Stamens numerous, 10-50, yellow in color. Petiole is 20-150 cm long. Sepals usually green, sometimes dull red, often marked with darker dots and lines. The flower is little bit smaller than Shapla, Water lily. Flower blooms at night. It remains open till noon. Flowering occurs in the rainy season to late autumn (July to November).
Fruit a spongy berry, 4.5 in diameter, ripening under water enclosed by persistent sepals. The propagation of the plant is caused by seeds and by bulb. It is also found in East Africa and South and Southeast Asia. As an ornamental plant it is planted in the water tanks and lakes in parks and gardens in Bangladesh. The Blue water lily is the national flower of Sri Lanka.
Other Bangla names: Kumud, Shundi, Nilkomol, Nil shapla, Nil poddo, Nil kombol.
Hijol or Indian oak ( Barringtonia acutangula , family: Lecythidaceae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree, native to riverine Bangladesh. This water-loving tree is found in the wetlands of Bangladesh. In rural areas, it can be seen standing in the water like Koronja . Common names: Hijal, Hijangal, Hendol. Leaves are short petioled, serrated, 7-12 cm long and 3-7 cm wide, crowded at the end of the branches. Flowers are small, pink to red, sub-sessile, purple red with numerous stamens. Inflorescence is 20-30 cm long, pendulous raceme, flower openning from top to downwards. The 4-merous flowers are grouped in long & pendulous racemes up to 20-30 cm long. The cup-shaped calyx is light green in color. Flowers bloom in April-May. In the winter Its bark has tannin which is useful for heart diseases. Powder of seeds works expectorant and applied to cure cough of children. Tonic is prepared from leaves and roots. Fish poison is also prepared from its roots
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Kulekhara or Talmakhna ( Hygrophila auriculata , family: Acanthaceae) is a stout and erect herb with straight and undivided stem. The spiny plant is very popular as a medicinal plant in Bangladesh as well as the Indian subcontinent. Other names: Kulekkha, Kuiley-rekha, Kanta kalika, Shoolmordon. Leaves are lanceolate, subsessile, acute at both ends with long whitish hairs, dense with straight and stout thorns that grow from each node. Outer leaves are longer than the inner ones. Both leaves and thorns remain in upward direction. Flowers in axillary whorls. They are bright violet or bluish purple and red, sometimes whitish with soft and minor hair, corolla 2-lipped. Flower blooms in the winter. Fruit a capsule, 4-8-seeded. Seeds are ovoid (not in the pic). The body of the plant contains alkaloids, phytosterols, stigmasterol, lupeol and essential oils. Its seeds contain oil, enzymes and sterols. The plant is cooling and diuretic in cases of h