Gaab or Indian persimmon (Diospyros peregrina, family : Ebenaceae) is a short to medium-sized evergreen tree with spreading branches and dense leaves. Bark is blackish. The nice canopy-holder tree can be seen from Southeast Asia to Australia. It is found everywhere in Bangladesh.
At the end of spring, the extraordinary red-brown leaves appear. This is one of the main characteristics of the plant. The entire tree looks great at that time. Leaves are simple, dark green, hard, smooth on upper side, petioled, alternate, lanceolate, 10-20 cm long and 4-7 cm wide. Leaves grow thickly on black branches.
Flowers are white, scented, with 4 thick petals; sepals 4. The plant produces flowers in March-April. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Female flowers usually grow singly from leaf axil while the male ones bloom in cluster on cyme inflorescence. 2-7 male flowers bloom together, while female ones bloom as singles on leaf axil. Male flowers are bigger and whiter than the female ones. The fruit with calyx is berry, round, fleshy and yellow when ripe. They are 4-5 cm wide. Seed 4-8. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.
Immature fruits are used to dye fishing nets. The fruits are frequently eaten by village children as well as the birds. Tinduk and Kalskondho are its Sanskrit names. Bark, fruits, seeds and leaves are used as medicine for the treatment of stomach, menstruation, dysentery, diabetes, salivate etc.
Til or Sesame ( Sesamum indicum , family: Pedaliaceae) is an annual herb with hollow stem and branches attaining a height of 50 to 100 cm. Sesame or Til seed is one of the oldest oil-seed crops o f t h e w o r l d. The plant is originated in Africa. It is cultivated as crop throughout the tropical world. Leaves are opposite, broad lanceolate, dark green, 4- 14 cm long with an entire margin . Flower is hairy, white or light pink, borne on leaf axil; 3-5 cm long with a four-lobed mouth. In Bangladesh, i t blooms generally in April-May. Sesame fruit is a rectangular capsule, 2-7 cm long, covered with tiny soft hair . Tiler khaja, a type of sweetened food made from sesame seed is very popular in Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. Seeds are usually off-white in c o l o r. Sesame is energizing, carminative and diuretic. It increases breast milk and sperms in male. It has been found useful in dyspepsia a
Shimul or Red silk-cotton ( Bombax ceiba , family: Malvaceae) is one of the most common trees that found in Bangladesh. This deciduous straight tall tree with thorny trunk and spreading crown is also found in tropical regions of Asia. In Bangladesh, the tree is planted in parks and on highways and beside national monuments for its gorgeous fire-red flowers. It can reach a height up to 60 m. Common names: Shimul, Red silk-cotton, Red cotton tree. Leaves are large, spreading, glabrous, digitate, leaflets lanceolate, entire, 10-15 cm long; petiole is up to 20 cm long. It blooms in spring (March-April). Flowers red, numerous, appearing when the tree is bare of leaves, stamens numerous arranged in five outer bundles and one middle bundle. Fruit capsules, woody valves. 10-13 cm in length. Seeds smooth, black or grey embedded in long white wool. Oh! the flame of the forest! Young plant is used in dysentery, cough, plethora, malnutrition and sexu
Durba-ghash or Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon , family: Gramineae) is a perennial grass with cylindrical nodes and internodes. It creeps on ground by creating roots from nodes of stem. Stem (up to 45 cm long) is usually green, sometimes reddish. The creeping herb is a traditional medicinal plant of the Indian subcontinent. It is found all over the country as a crop weed. It is also found in South and Southeast Asia and The tropical region of Africa. Although its roots do not go deep into the soil, it retains the soil quite well. Otherwise, in a rainy country like ours, it would have been impossible to prevent soil erosion. Leaves are narrow or linear with pointed tip, pale green, minutly hairy, 2-8 cm long. The leaf ligules are covered with thin white hairs. Inflorescence is brownish green, divided in to 5 parts, each part 2-5 cm long. Flowering occurs almost round the year. It is propagated by seeds, rhyzome and stolon. The plant contains triterpe