Bangladesh is a rich land of biodiversity. About 6000 species of plants are gathered in such a small area of 147570 sq km.
I am trying to introduce the flora of Bangladesh in a pack from the naturalist view, not from the eye of plant-expert. For this, there will be some unwanted mistakes.
Needless to say, pics used in this site are all original and snapped by me. The information are gathered here from the personal notes, collected books and from different websites.
Boro bet, Osier-like rattan palm, Calamaus viminalis
Boro bet or Osier-like rattan palm (Calamaus viminalis, family: Araceae) is a clump forming spiny large creeper, occasionally takes the form of bushes. Spines are flat and very long. By the support of other plants it climbs. Stem is slender, like most of the canes; brownish and covered with thorny sheath.
It is found mainly in the hill slopes of Chottogram, Chottogram Hill Tracts and Sylhet. It is also found in the Sal forests of Bangladesh. It has spiny climbing stem or tendrils to climb on; that will be 2-3 m long. Leaf sheath whitish green, pubescent, densely covered with hook-like stout spines. Rachis 1-2 m long. Leaflets are green, lanceolate, 30-55 in per side, alternate.
In Sal forest of Gajipur
Inflorescence is very long, 2-3 m, flagellate. Male and female flowers are borne in different inflorescence; female is shorter than male.
Fruits appear in cluster; berry, usually globose, yellowish or whitish, almost 1 cm in diameter, pointed end, covered with scale-like particles one after another; usually single-seeded. Fruits are edible. Children are very fond of it.
Flowers and fruits can be found round the year. The propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.
Handicrafts, tools as well as furniture are made from its cane. Young shoots can be eaten. The cane is found in India, Thailand, China, Myanmar and the other countries of Southeast Asia.
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Makal or Mahakal ( Trichosanthes tricuspidata , family: Cucurbitaceae) is a woody climber with tendril and branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The multiangular-branched plant climbs up very far by holding any tree in the forest. It is found in the hilly areas as well as plain forests and village thickets in Bangladesh. It is also found in Indian subcontinent, Australia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia. According to ancient Sanskrit scriptures the other names of the plant are Bishala, Mohendro-baruni. In the Himalayas it has been seen at an altitude of 5000 feet. There are many refferences to the fruit in Bangla and Sanskrit literature. Someone is very nice to look at but he/she is useless--writers usually jokingly give examples of this fruit. Its roots and attractive fruits are packed with medicinal properties. The size and shape of leaves may vary. These are multilobed or trilobed, alternate, rough in both sides, 5-12 cm long, petioled, cor
Kulekhara or Talmakhna ( Hygrophila auriculata , family: Acanthaceae) is a stout and erect herb with straight and undivided stem. The spiny plant is very popular as a medicinal plant in Bangladesh as well as the Indian subcontinent. Other names: Kulekkha, Kuiley-rekha, Kanta kalika, Shoolmordon. Leaves are lanceolate, subsessile, acute at both ends with long whitish hairs, dense with straight and stout thorns that grow from each node. Outer leaves are longer than the inner ones. Both leaves and thorns remain in upward direction. Flowers in axillary whorls. They are bright violet or bluish purple and red, sometimes whitish with soft and minor hair, corolla 2-lipped. Flower blooms in the winter. Fruit a capsule, 4-8-seeded. Seeds are ovoid (not in the pic). The body of the plant contains alkaloids, phytosterols, stigmasterol, lupeol and essential oils. Its seeds contain oil, enzymes and sterols. The plant is cooling and diuretic in cases of h