Bangladesh is a rich land of biodiversity. About 6000 species of plants are gathered in such a small area of 147570 sq km.
I am trying to introduce the flora of Bangladesh in a pack from the naturalist view, not from the eye of plant-expert. For this, there will be some unwanted mistakes.
Needless to say, pics used in this site are all original and snapped by me. The information are gathered here from the personal notes, collected books and from different websites.
Jaam or Black plum, Syzygium cumini
Jaam or Black plum (Syzygium cumini, family: Myrtaceae) is a medium or large-sized evergreen with spreading and upright branches. The trunk is straight, grey in color and rough. The fruits of the plant is very juicy, nice-colored, tasty and nutritious too. It is a very common tree in Bangladesh. The plant is an evergreen and shadow-giving tree. So it is planted in parks and gardens and beside the avenue and highways. It is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia as well as Australia. The original home of the plant is considered as India.
Other names: Indian black berry, Jamun, Jambu
Leaves are simple, green, glabrous, coriaceous, ovate-oblong, 6-15 cm long and 3-9 cm wide, apex pointed, alternate, petioled.
Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds and cuttings. Fruits, roots, leaves, seeds and barks are used in dysentery, diabetes, cough, high blood pressure and lever diseases. A kind of wine can be produced from its juicy fruits. Fruit contains starch, protein, fats, mineral salt and Vitamin B and C. Wood is durable and excellent as fuel but not good enough to make furniture.
Flowers are whitish, scented, sessile. Flowering occurs in the beginning of summer. It blooms in cluster on cyme inflorescence arising from old stem.
Fruit is berry, ovoid or round, very juicy, green when raw, deep violet or blackish when ripe. Fruits ripe in late summer. The Hindus and Buddhist of the subcontinent regarded the tree as sacred one. They plant the tree in the courtyard of their shrine. The tree is well described by ancient Sanskrit and Bengali poets. It is called Jambulah in Sanskrit.
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Deua or Monkey jack ( Artocarpus lacucha , family: Moraceae) a large tree with large spreading crown, of 12-18 m height. The bark of the deciduous tree is grey and coarse. The type of its fruit reminds us of Jackfruit . It is found in South and Southeast Asia. It is one of the most common trees found in Bangladesh. Other names: Delo madar, deyphol, Deuphol, Dehua, Deua cham, Barta, Dalo, Bon kathal. Leaves are broadly elliptic, entire, rough, brittle, 10-30 cm long and 10-18 cm wide, undulate, back hairy, leathery. Flowers are small, without petals. Male and female flowers grow on the same inflorescence. Female inflorescence has pedicel, though the male one has none. The fruits come from the female flowers. Fruit is a syncarp (multiple fruit, which is fleshy), wavy, velvety, bright yellow or orange when ripe, 5-10 cm in diameter. The fruit is sour-tasted but also somewhat sweet. It is eaten raw or pickled. Seed is oblong and white in color. The pl
Kolmi-lota or Water spinach (I pomoea aquatica , family: Convolvulaceae) is an annual floating herb from Morning glory family. It is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, most commonly in East, South and Southeast Asia. Stem is soft and creeping nature. It grows in water or on the edge of water bodies. Common names: Kalmilata, Water spinach, River spinach, Water morning glory, Water convolvulus, Swamp cabbage The hollow stems of ipomoea aquatica are 2-5 meters or more long, rooting at the nodes. Leaves are long-petioled, green, ovate-cordate with pointed apex, 5-15 cm long and 2-8 cm wide , alternate. Flowers are whitish-violet or white, showy, single, axillary, funnel-shaped, 3-5 cm in diameter. Flower bloom s mainly in autumn. Propagation is either by planting cuttings of the stem shoots that will root along nodes or planting the seeds from flowers that produce seed pods. It is useful in pox and in