Shapla or White water lily (Nymphaea pubescens, family: Nymphaeceae) is a common water plant and its flower is the national flower of Bangladesh. The plant grows from underwater soil. It is found in ponds, canals, beels and jheels along with Kolmi-lota, Keshordam, Chondromala, Chandmala, Maloncho, Jhajhidam and other Lilies in the country. The lovely aquatic plant is also found in Indian subcontinent as well as Southeast Asia. In Sanskrit literature it is mentioned as Kumuda.
Other names: Shaluk (Bang); White lotus, Hairy water lily, Pink water lily(Eng).
Petiole is very long : 60-70 cm. Leaves are round or ovate, floating on water, 15-45 cm long, edge dentate and wavy, upper side bright green and lower side reddish violet
Flower is white, reddish, or bluish. Sepals 4, elliptical-ovate, persistent, 3-9 cm long, outer side green, vertically striped; inner side bluish white. Numerous stamens surrounded the pistil at the centre of flower.
Flower usually blooms at night during rainy season. Fruit is globose, glabrous, with granular seeds inside.
It is used in dysentery, cough, vomiting, fever, gall and heart diseases. It helps the growth of sperm and breast milk. Seeds are fried to make 'khoi', which is edible. Shapla stems are eaten as delicious vegetables. If the root is not picked up completely, it is indestructible. Although this species has three different colors, it is unmistakable to say that the white one is the national flower of Bangladesh.
Synonyms: Nymphaea rubra, Nymphaea edulis, Nymphaea esculenta, Nymphaea lotus var. pubescens, Nymphaea magnifica, Nymphaea purpurea, Nymphaea rosea.
Til or Sesame ( Sesamum indicum , family: Pedaliaceae) is an annual herb with hollow stem and branches attaining a height of 50 to 100 cm. Sesame or Til seed is one of the oldest oil-seed crops o f t h e w o r l d. The plant is originated in Africa. It is cultivated as crop throughout the tropical world. Leaves are opposite, broad lanceolate, dark green, 4- 14 cm long with an entire margin . Flower is hairy, white or light pink, borne on leaf axil; 3-5 cm long with a four-lobed mouth. In Bangladesh, i t blooms generally in April-May. Sesame fruit is a rectangular capsule, 2-7 cm long, covered with tiny soft hair . Tiler khaja, a type of sweetened food made from sesame seed is very popular in Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. Seeds are usually off-white in c o l o r. Sesame is energizing, carminative and diuretic. It increases breast milk and sperms in male. It has been found useful in dyspepsia a
Shimul or Red silk-cotton ( Bombax ceiba , family: Malvaceae) is one of the most common trees that found in Bangladesh. This deciduous straight tall tree with thorny trunk and spreading crown is also found in tropical regions of Asia. In Bangladesh, the tree is planted in parks and on highways and beside national monuments for its gorgeous fire-red flowers. It can reach a height up to 60 m. Common names: Shimul, Red silk-cotton, Red cotton tree. Leaves are large, spreading, glabrous, digitate, leaflets lanceolate, entire, 10-15 cm long; petiole is up to 20 cm long. It blooms in spring (March-April). Flowers red, numerous, appearing when the tree is bare of leaves, stamens numerous arranged in five outer bundles and one middle bundle. Fruit capsules, woody valves. 10-13 cm in length. Seeds smooth, black or grey embedded in long white wool. Oh! the flame of the forest! Young plant is used in dysentery, cough, plethora, malnutrition and sexu
Jongli badam or Bastard poon tree ( Sterculia foetida , family: Sterculuaceae) is a large deciduous tree, up to 20 m in height, with branches arranged in whorls and spreading horizontally. Trunk is robust and straight. There are eye-like glands on the grey-colored bark. The tree has some resembles with Shimul . The children are in the womb! Leaves are digitately compound, leaflets 5-8, crowded at the end of branches, elliptic-lanceolate, tip elongated, acuminate, 10-18 cm long and 4-5 cm wide, petiole is very long, about 20 cm, though the length of leaflets are very short, almost sessile. Flowers are red-yellow or light purple, borne on a axillary panicles. Sepals 5. Flowers bloom is the end of winter or in spring. Although the flowers are beautiful but those have a very unpleasant odour. For this reason, the species have been named foetida