Shapla or White water lily (Nymphaea pubescens, family: Nymphaeceae) is a common water plant and its flower is the national flower of Bangladesh. The plant grows from underwater soil. It is found in ponds, canals, beels and jheels along with Kolmi-lota, Keshordam, Chondromala, Chandmala, Maloncho, Jhajhidam and other Lilies in the country. The lovely aquatic plant is also found in Indian subcontinent as well as Southeast Asia. In Sanskrit literature it is mentioned as Kumuda.
Other names: Shaluk (Bang); White lotus, Hairy water lily, Pink water lily(Eng).
Petiole is very long : 60-70 cm. Leaves are round or ovate, floating on water, 15-45 cm long, edge dentate and wavy, upper side bright green and lower side reddish violet
Flower is white, reddish, or bluish. Sepals 4, elliptical-ovate, persistent, 3-9 cm long, outer side green, vertically striped; inner side bluish white. Numerous stamens surrounded the pistil at the centre of flower.
Flower usually blooms at night during rainy season. Fruit is globose, glabrous, with granular seeds inside.
It is used in dysentery, cough, vomiting, fever, gall and heart diseases. It helps the growth of sperm and breast milk. Seeds are fried to make 'khoi', which is edible. Shapla stems are eaten as delicious vegetables. If the root is not picked up completely, it is indestructible. Although this species has three different colors, it is unmistakable to say that the white one is the national flower of Bangladesh.
Synonyms: Nymphaea rubra, Nymphaea edulis, Nymphaea esculenta, Nymphaea lotus var. pubescens, Nymphaea magnifica, Nymphaea purpurea, Nymphaea rosea.
Buddho narikel or Buddha coconut ( Pterygota alata , family: Sterculiaceae) is a large erect tree with branches, reaching up to 50 m in height. Trunk is huge and stout. Bark is smooth and grey in color. The deciduous mighty tree is found in the hilly forests of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet of Bangladesh. The tree is also found in South India, Sikkim and Andaman Islands. In Bangladesh it is planted in parks and botanical gardens as an ornamental plant. Leaves are dark green, big, cordate, glabrous, 10-25 cm long and 7-20 cm wide, alternate; long-petioled: 10-14 cm long. Midrib and veins are clearly visible. Flowers are reddish inside, outside brownish yellow, scented, petals 5. It produces flowers in spring. Fruit is big, round, hard, dehiscent, dark brown in color. Seeds are winged, numerous. Fruit pulp tastes almost like Coconut. The native plant is propagated by seeds. Seed is edible too. It can be taken after frying. A
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Lal shonail or Pink shower ( Cassia javanica , family: Fabaceae) is a medium-sized deciduous tree with knotted and shortened trunk, attaining a height of 12-16 m. Bark is grey. Young shoots are silky. Its spreading branches sometimes almost touch the ground towards the peripherry. It is an ideal tree for planting in a large garden. It is found in the hilly forests of Sylhet and Chattogram in Bangladesh. As a beautiful ornamental tree, it is planted in parks, botanical gardens, gardens and roadsides in the country. It is also found in various tropical countries of Asia. At the beginning of summer, the canopy of the tree is covered with flowers in such a way that it looks as if a pink fountain is waiting to fall. In order to get colorful colors in summer, you have to plant this tree in the garden with Jarul , Krishnochura , Shonalu and Konokchura . Leaves are spectacular. These are compound, 12-24; leaflets elliptic-oblong, 2.5-4.5 cm and 2-3.5 cm wide. Flowers are scented, pink