Shachi or Sessile joyweed (Alternanthera sessilis, family: Amaranthaceae) is a creeping sub-aquatic herb with many branches, attaining a height of 10-35 cm. The branches are formed in pairs from the nodes of the stems. Sometimes it lies on the ground by forming roots from the stem axil.
Other names: Chanchi, Phul heicha, Haiccha, Shati shak.
Stem is glabrous and usally green but sometimes reddish. Young shoots are minutely hairy. The plant grows near water bodies, in fallow lands, on roadside, even on old wall. It is found everwhere in Bangladesh. It is also found in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world.
Leaves are green, sessile, elliptic-oblanceolate, opposite, 5-6 cm long and 2.5-3.5 cm wide, undulated and dented irregularly, tip rounded.
The inflorescence, round in shape and white in color arises from the leaf axil. These are much like Maloncho (Alligator weed). Florets are sessile, petals 5. It blooms almost round the year.
Fruits are small, 5-6 mm, thin pocket-like. Seeds are round, shiny and light chocholate in color. Propagation is caused by seeds.
It is a useful herbal plant which provides energy and increases breast milk. It is also useful in stomach ache. Village people consume it as vegetables. A reddish form of it is also seen often in the country.
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Lal shonail or Pink shower ( Cassia javanica , family: Fabaceae) is a medium-sized deciduous tree with knotted and shortened trunk, attaining a height of 12-16 m. Bark is grey. Young shoots are silky. Its spreading branches sometimes almost touch the ground towards the peripherry. It is an ideal tree for planting in a large garden. It is found in the hilly forests of Sylhet and Chattogram in Bangladesh. As a beautiful ornamental tree, it is planted in parks, botanical gardens, gardens and roadsides in the country. It is also found in various tropical countries of Asia. At the beginning of summer, the canopy of the tree is covered with flowers in such a way that it looks as if a pink fountain is waiting to fall. In order to get colorful colors in summer, you have to plant this tree in the garden with Jarul , Krishnochura , Shonalu and Konokchura . Leaves are spectacular. These are compound, 12-24; leaflets elliptic-oblong, 2.5-4.5 cm and 2-3.5 cm wide. Flowers are scented, pink
Kulekhara or Talmakhna ( Hygrophila auriculata , family: Acanthaceae) is a stout and erect herb with straight and undivided stem. The spiny plant is very popular as a medicinal plant in Bangladesh as well as the Indian subcontinent. Other names: Kulekkha, Kuiley-rekha, Kanta kalika, Shoolmordon. Leaves are lanceolate, subsessile, acute at both ends with long whitish hairs, dense with straight and stout thorns that grow from each node. Outer leaves are longer than the inner ones. Both leaves and thorns remain in upward direction. Flowers in axillary whorls. They are bright violet or bluish purple and red, sometimes whitish with soft and minor hair, corolla 2-lipped. Flower blooms in the winter. Fruit a capsule, 4-8-seeded. Seeds are ovoid (not in the pic). The body of the plant contains alkaloids, phytosterols, stigmasterol, lupeol and essential oils. Its seeds contain oil, enzymes and sterols. The plant is cooling and diuretic in cases of h