Hogla or Southern cattail (Typha domingensis, family: Typhaceae) is a aquatic tall grass growing in cluster, attaining a height of 3 m. Stem is simple or terete. The perennial plant is found mostly in Sundarbans, as well as the southern districts in Bangladesh. There they can be seen standing in the water.
Other names: Chel-pata, Kaam, Tara.
It is also found in riverside area, on the edge of cannals and other water bodies of the country. It is also found in India, Northern Africa and Southern Europe.
Leaves are beautiful, long, semicylindric, clustered at athe base.
Flowers are small, whitish brown, borne on spikelet inflorescence. Male and female flowers grow on separate inflorescence. Flowers bloom in summer.
Fruits are long, chocolate-colored. When they mature, become divided. The plant is propagated by seeds and gland tubers.
The plant is an economic crop. Mat, fence and roof thach are made of it. It is also used to cover pile of fishes in box which keeps them fresh. Its roots can hold the soil. So it can be planted in waterside areas. Being a spectacular grass it can be kept in your aquatic gardens.
Til or Sesame ( Sesamum indicum , family: Pedaliaceae) is an annual herb with hollow stem and branches attaining a height of 50 to 100 cm. Sesame or Til seed is one of the oldest oil-seed crops o f t h e w o r l d. The plant is originated in Africa. It is cultivated as crop throughout the tropical world. Leaves are opposite, broad lanceolate, dark green, 4- 14 cm long with an entire margin . Flower is hairy, white or light pink, borne on leaf axil; 3-5 cm long with a four-lobed mouth. In Bangladesh, i t blooms generally in April-May. Sesame fruit is a rectangular capsule, 2-7 cm long, covered with tiny soft hair . Tiler khaja, a type of sweetened food made from sesame seed is very popular in Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. Seeds are usually off-white in c o l o r. Sesame is energizing, carminative and diuretic. It increases breast milk and sperms in male. It has been found useful in dyspepsia a
Shimul or Red silk-cotton ( Bombax ceiba , family: Malvaceae) is one of the most common trees that found in Bangladesh. This deciduous straight tall tree with thorny trunk and spreading crown is also found in tropical regions of Asia. In Bangladesh, the tree is planted in parks and on highways and beside national monuments for its gorgeous fire-red flowers. It can reach a height up to 60 m. Common names: Shimul, Red silk-cotton, Red cotton tree. Leaves are large, spreading, glabrous, digitate, leaflets lanceolate, entire, 10-15 cm long; petiole is up to 20 cm long. It blooms in spring (March-April). Flowers red, numerous, appearing when the tree is bare of leaves, stamens numerous arranged in five outer bundles and one middle bundle. Fruit capsules, woody valves. 10-13 cm in length. Seeds smooth, black or grey embedded in long white wool. Oh! the flame of the forest! Young plant is used in dysentery, cough, plethora, malnutrition and sexu
Danda-kolosh or Shetodron ( Leucas aspera , family: Lamiaceae) is an annual herb with soft, hairy and qudrangular stem. The weed is found in South and Southeast Asia. It prefers dry, open and sandy soil. The under-shrub can reach a height of 30-50 cm. Other local names: Dolkolosh, Julfi, Holkosha, Debdron. Flowers rise from axillary whorls are pure white, small and showy. Petals 5, sepals 5, bilabiate. It blooms in March-April mainly. Flower contains nectar. Leaves are short petioled, entire, oblong-lanceolate, taper at the base; 6-8 cm long and 1-2 cm wide. In Sanskrit, it is called 'Dronapushpi'. Oblong fruits are nutlets, brown in color; 2-3 mm long. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. The plant is full of medicinal qualities. Whole plant is used to prepare medicine, which is effective in cold and headache. The leaves contain antibacterial elements. It is used to cure psoriasis and scabies. Those are eaten as vegetable