Aam or Mango (Mangifera indica, family: Anacardiaceae) is a medium or large-sized evergreen tree with spreading branches, attaining a height of 40 m. The trunk is grey or blackish and rough. The leafy tree is found everywhere in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, it is planted as a homestead tree.
Mango is called the king of all fruits in the country. The Size, color, smell, juicy pulp, taste, nutritional value--overall it is the best fruit. It is the national tree of Bangladesh. Southeast Asia is the original home of the plant.
Fruit is a drupe, big, round or oblong, green, yellow or red. Pulp is very sweet and juicy, yellow or reddish, delicious. The fruits become mature in the end of summer. Single fruit may weigh 100-700 grams. It is propagated by seeds and cuttings.
The leafy and wide-rooted tree is a long-lived tree indeed. In suitable condition it can survive for 300 years. It is so much popular that it has around two and a half thousand different cultivars all over the world. About 1000 cultivars of mango are cultivated in this subcontinent.
In 15-16th century, this delicious fruit spread throughout the world through the Spanish and Portuguese and Muslim missionaries. The tree is well mentioned in Buddhist literature `Jataka tales` (4th century BC) and in different ancient Sanskrit literature. The Mughal emperors have cultivated many native and foreign cultivars in their garden.
Some of the best cultivars of Mango that are produced in Bangladesh are Fozli, Lyangra, Gopalbhog, Amropali, Khirshapat, Shurjopori, Bombai, Himshagor, Kishanbhog, Asshina,, Baromashi, Kaachamittha, Brindaboni, Kuapahari, Raajbhog, Mohonbhog, Kohitor, Misribhog, Sridhon, Dudhia, Gopalkhash etc.
Different kinds of tasty food are made from both green and ripe fruits, like Morobba, Jelly, Chatni, Aamshi, Amshotto and varities of pickles. Although its wood is not high quality, yet it is used to make furniture and wooden boat. As firewood, it is excellent.
In the Indian subcontinent, it has been recognized as a medicinal plant since ancient times. Fruit contains a lot of Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and Vitamin A. Leaves, fruits, milky latex and bark are used in bleeding, diabetes, hair fall, eye and dental diseases.
Shimul or Red silk-cotton ( Bombax ceiba , family: Malvaceae) is one of the most common trees that found in Bangladesh. This deciduous straight tall tree with thorny trunk and spreading crown is also found in tropical regions of Asia. In Bangladesh, the tree is planted in parks and on highways and beside national monuments for its gorgeous fire-red flowers. It can reach a height up to 60 m. Common names: Shimul, Red silk-cotton, Red cotton tree. Leaves are large, spreading, glabrous, digitate, leaflets lanceolate, entire, 10-15 cm long; petiole is up to 20 cm long. It blooms in spring (March-April). Flowers red, numerous, appearing when the tree is bare of leaves, stamens numerous arranged in five outer bundles and one middle bundle. Fruit capsules, woody valves. 10-13 cm in length. Seeds smooth, black or grey embedded in long white wool. Oh! the flame of the forest! Young plant is used in dysentery, cough, plethora, malnutrition and sexu
Makal or Mahakal ( Trichosanthes tricuspidata , family: Cucurbitaceae) is a woody climber with tendril and branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The multiangular-branched plant climbs up very far by holding any tree in the forest. It is found in the hilly areas as well as plain forests and village thickets in Bangladesh. It is also found in Indian subcontinent, Australia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia. According to ancient Sanskrit scriptures the other names of the plant are Bishala, Mohendro-baruni. In the Himalayas it has been seen at an altitude of 5000 feet. There are many refferences to the fruit in Bangla and Sanskrit literature. Someone is very nice to look at but he/she is useless--writers usually jokingly give examples of this fruit. Its roots and attractive fruits are packed with medicinal properties. The size and shape of leaves may vary. These are multilobed or trilobed, alternate, rough in both sides, 5-12 cm long, petioled, cor
Danda-kolosh or Shetodron ( Leucas aspera , family: Lamiaceae) is an annual herb with soft, hairy and qudrangular stem. The weed is found in South and Southeast Asia. It prefers dry, open and sandy soil. The under-shrub can reach a height of 30-50 cm. Other local names: Dolkolosh, Julfi, Holkosha, Debdron. Flowers rise from axillary whorls are pure white, small and showy. Petals 5, sepals 5, bilabiate. It blooms in March-April mainly. Flower contains nectar. Leaves are short petioled, entire, oblong-lanceolate, taper at the base; 6-8 cm long and 1-2 cm wide. In Sanskrit, it is called 'Dronapushpi'. Oblong fruits are nutlets, brown in color; 2-3 mm long. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. The plant is full of medicinal qualities. Whole plant is used to prepare medicine, which is effective in cold and headache. The leaves contain antibacterial elements. It is used to cure psoriasis and scabies. Those are eaten as vegetable