Panikola or Duck lettuce (Ottelia alismoides, family: Hydrocharitaceae) is an annual submerged herb grows in the paddy fields and at the edge of water bodies. The short-stemmed aquatic plant prefers shallow water bodies and can survive in strong light. Its roots along with rhizome are ingrained in soil. It is found in the tropical and subtropical Asia, Africa and Australia.
Other Bangla names
Ram korola, Kaobali, Torukola, Shyamkola, Kuchkolai, Jol-kolosh, Pani-kolosh, Jol-kola.
Leaves grow up with the rise in water level. Size and shape of the leaves are different. They are usually oblong-cordate, slightly clear, fragile, edge undulate. The size of the petiole depends on the level of water too. It generally gets a length of 10-20 cm. Peduncle comes out from the rhizome.
The flower is covered with green spathes in early stage. Mature flower stands erectly on the water. Flower is white or light violet. Sepals 3, petals 3. Flowering occurs in autumn and late autumn in Bangladesh.
Kaat-badam or Bengal almond ( Terminalia catappa , family: Combretaceae) is a large deciduous tree with spreading horizontal branches. It is found in the tropical Asia, Africa and Australia. Common names: Katbadam, Deshi badam, Bengal almond, Indian almond, Tropical almond. During winter the beautiful green leaves of terminalia catappa turn to red. Leaves are simple, 15-25 cm long and 8-15 cm wide, obcordate, alternate or whorled. Flowers appear in the summer. Flowers are small, grey white, clustered on axillary or terminal spike. Flowers on the upper part of the inflorescence are male and those are on the lower part are bisexual. Fruit is elliptical, 4-6 cm long, red when ripe. The tree with nice canopy is planted in avenues and gardens as ornamental tree in Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.
Tulsi o r Sacred basil ( Ocimum tenuiflorum , family: Lamiaceae) is an odorous perennial herb or undershrub with many branches attaining a height of 1-15 m. Almost whole body of the plant is covered with hairs. Stem is woody furrowed and quadrangular. Like many other herbs (Dhutra, Begun, Pepper) the plant can be purple. It is found everywhere in Bangladesh as a medicinal as well as sacred plant to Hindu community. It has spread across a huge global range, extending from the Arabian Peninsula to East Asia as well as Pacific Islands to Australia. Other names: Kalo tulsi (Bang); Tulasi, Ajaka (Sans); Holy basil (Eng). Leaves are strongly scented, green or purple, hairy, ovate-broadly elliptical, 2-5 cm long and 1-1.5 cm wide, opposite, irregularly dented, petiole 2-3 cm long. Flowers are tiny, white or purplish, 3-8 on terminal inflorescence (12-25 cm long). Corolla bilabiate, petals 5, calyx divided into two parts, Stamens 4. It produces flower almost round the year. Fruit is nut
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis