Bangladesh is a rich land of biodiversity. About 6000 species of plants are gathered in such a small area of 147570 sq km.
I am trying to introduce the flora of Bangladesh in a pack from the naturalist view, not from the eye of plant-expert. For this, there will be some unwanted mistakes.
Needless to say, pics used in this site are all original and snapped by me. The information are gathered here from the personal notes, collected books and from different websites.
Bel or Wood apple, Eegle marmelos
Bel or Wood apple (Aegle marmelos, Rutaceae) is a spiny deciduous tree with many branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. Bark is grey, soft. The tree has been regarded as sacred plant to Hindu community. The medium-sized tree is a very popular homestead tree.
It has been planted in Hindu temples in the subcontinent for thousand of years. The leafy tree can be planted by roads and highways and in park and gardens as an ornamental plant.
Leaves are tri-foliate, wild-scented, alternate, green. There are hard thorns at the bottom of leaves. Leaves fall off in summer. Leaflet is lanceolate, 8-10 cm long and 4-6 cm wide.
Flowers are white with greenish touch, bisexual, sweet-scented. Petals 4, fleshy, calyx shortened, stamens numerous. Flowers bloom in March-May.
Fruits are round, big, woody, edible, sweet-scented. The fruit matures for almost 8 months after the flowering occurs. Propagation is by seeds.
It has a valuable medicinal use. The fruit is nutritious and stomachic. Leaves are effective in cold. Raw fruit can cure blood dysentery and ripe fruit can cure constipation.
Juice from ripe fruit is very popular in Bangladesh as well as Indian subcontinent. The wood is yellowish or whitish. It can be easily polished.
The insects are very crazy abour the Bel flowers!
Bilvah is the Sanskrit name of the plant. The trifoliate leaves are the must used matter to Hindu worship.
Kaat-badam or Bengal almond ( Terminalia catappa , family: Combretaceae) is a large deciduous tree with spreading horizontal branches. It is found in the tropical Asia, Africa and Australia. Common names: Katbadam, Deshi badam, Bengal almond, Indian almond, Tropical almond. During winter the beautiful green leaves of terminalia catappa turn to red. Leaves are simple, 15-25 cm long and 8-15 cm wide, obcordate, alternate or whorled. Flowers appear in the summer. Flowers are small, grey white, clustered on axillary or terminal spike. Flowers on the upper part of the inflorescence are male and those are on the lower part are bisexual. Fruit is elliptical, 4-6 cm long, red when ripe. The tree with nice canopy is planted in avenues and gardens as ornamental tree in Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.
Tulsi o r Sacred basil ( Ocimum tenuiflorum , family: Lamiaceae) is an odorous perennial herb or undershrub with many branches attaining a height of 1-15 m. Almost whole body of the plant is covered with hairs. Stem is woody furrowed and quadrangular. Like many other herbs (Dhutra, Begun, Pepper) the plant can be purple. It is found everywhere in Bangladesh as a medicinal as well as sacred plant to Hindu community. It has spread across a huge global range, extending from the Arabian Peninsula to East Asia as well as Pacific Islands to Australia. Other names: Kalo tulsi (Bang); Tulasi, Ajaka (Sans); Holy basil (Eng). Leaves are strongly scented, green or purple, hairy, ovate-broadly elliptical, 2-5 cm long and 1-1.5 cm wide, opposite, irregularly dented, petiole 2-3 cm long. Flowers are tiny, white or purplish, 3-8 on terminal inflorescence (12-25 cm long). Corolla bilabiate, petals 5, calyx divided into two parts, Stamens 4. It produces flower almost round the year. Fruit is nut
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis