Bain or Indian mangrove (Avicennia officinalis, family: Verbenaceae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree of Mangrove forest with breathing roots. It can get a height of 7-25 m. Young trees are usually bushy-natured and get a large crown.
Bark is thin and smooth, pale green in color. It is mainly found on the riverbank and near the sea area of Sundarbans as well as the coasts and islands of South and Southeast Asia. The tree can be identified from a distance by seeing the abundance of its fruits.
Other names: Kala bain, Baen, Bani, Bol bain, Bina, Telia bain, Sagarodbhutah (Sanskrit).
Flowers borne in terminal inflorescence. They are bisexual, very small in size, yellow-orange, pungent. Petals 4, unequal, ovoid; stamen 4. Flowering occurs in the summer. Fruit is a capsule, ovoid and thin, yellowish green in color, 2.5-3 cm long, 1-seeded. The germination take place on the waterlogged soil. The fruit is edible; local people eat its fruit.
It has great value as fuel. Its bark is used as contraceptive. Honey from its flower is excellent. The fruit is used to get rid of boil. Beside Sundarbans, the tree can also be seen in other coastal forests of Bangladesh.
Kodbel or Elephant wood apple ( Feronia limonia , family: Rutaceae) is medium-sized fruit-giving tree with straight trunk and numerous branches. Bark is dark grey. It has straight spines in axil. Some parts of the tree are quite fragrant--leaves, ripe fruits, seeds etc. The tree is planted as ornamental one in parks and gardens nowadays in Bangladesh. It is planted in the country as a homestead tree too. Other Bangla names: Koyetbel, Chirpaki. Leaflet is small, 5-7, and 3-4 cm wide, opposite, cuneate or obovate. Leaves are scented. Flowers are good-looking, showy. Those are reddish; calyx 5-lobbed, triangular; petals ovate. Male and female flowers can be seen in the same panicle. Flower blooms in March-April. Fruit is round, greenish white or ye l l o w is h w h ite at a glance, 8-10 cm in diameter. Skin is very hard but fragile. The pulp is fleshy and soft. Raw pulp is light brown, ripe is deep chocholate or yelowish brown. The ripe fruit is qu
Makal or Mahakal ( Trichosanthes tricuspidata , family: Cucurbitaceae) is a woody climber with tendril and branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The multiangular-branched plant climbs up very far by holding any tree in the forest. It is found in the hilly areas as well as plain forests and village thickets in Bangladesh. It is also found in Indian subcontinent, Australia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia. According to ancient Sanskrit scriptures the other names of the plant are Bishala, Mohendro-baruni. In the Himalayas it has been seen at an altitude of 5000 feet. There are many refferences to the fruit in Bangla and Sanskrit literature. Someone is very nice to look at but he/she is useless--writers usually jokingly give examples of this fruit. Its roots and attractive fruits are packed with medicinal properties. The size and shape of leaves may vary. These are multilobed or trilobed, alternate, rough in both sides, 5-12 cm long, petioled, cor
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis