Kurchi or Girimollika (Holarrhena antidysenterica, family: Apocynaceae) is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree with branches, attaining a height of 6-7 m. Its bark is not smooth and slightly grey in color.
The tree is one of the most beautiful flowering plants in Bangladesh. It is mainly found in the hilly areas as well as Sal forests in the country. The loving tree is native to Indian subcontinent, including Bangladesh.
Leaves are simple, green, glabrous, opposite, nearly sessile, elliptic-lanceolate with pointed apex, 4-20 cm long and 8-10 cm wide. Flowers are white, 2-4 cm wide, slightly tubular at base, scented, clustered. Sepals 5, petals 5.
Flowers bloom profusely at the beginning of spring. In this time no leaves can be found in the tree!
The tree is full with medicinal values. Its bark and seeds are used to prepare medicine for fever, strangury, worm, tumour, dysentery and sore in mouth. Its bark is used in snakebite and scorpion sting.
The species name 'antidysenterica' indicates that it gives great benefits to dysentery disease. The Sanskrit name of the plant are Kutaja, which is mentioned in Kalidasa's (The legendary Medieval Indian poet and dramatist) one of the greatest works 'Meghadut'.
Kaat-badam or Bengal almond ( Terminalia catappa , family: Combretaceae) is a large deciduous tree with spreading horizontal branches. It is found in the tropical Asia, Africa and Australia. Common names: Katbadam, Deshi badam, Bengal almond, Indian almond, Tropical almond. During winter the beautiful green leaves of terminalia catappa turn to red. Leaves are simple, 15-25 cm long and 8-15 cm wide, obcordate, alternate or whorled. Flowers appear in the summer. Flowers are small, grey white, clustered on axillary or terminal spike. Flowers on the upper part of the inflorescence are male and those are on the lower part are bisexual. Fruit is elliptical, 4-6 cm long, red when ripe. The tree with nice canopy is planted in avenues and gardens as ornamental tree in Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.
Tulsi o r Sacred basil ( Ocimum tenuiflorum , family: Lamiaceae) is an odorous perennial herb or undershrub with many branches attaining a height of 1-15 m. Almost whole body of the plant is covered with hairs. Stem is woody furrowed and quadrangular. Like many other herbs (Dhutra, Begun, Pepper) the plant can be purple. It is found everywhere in Bangladesh as a medicinal as well as sacred plant to Hindu community. It has spread across a huge global range, extending from the Arabian Peninsula to East Asia as well as Pacific Islands to Australia. Other names: Kalo tulsi (Bang); Tulasi, Ajaka (Sans); Holy basil (Eng). Leaves are strongly scented, green or purple, hairy, ovate-broadly elliptical, 2-5 cm long and 1-1.5 cm wide, opposite, irregularly dented, petiole 2-3 cm long. Flowers are tiny, white or purplish, 3-8 on terminal inflorescence (12-25 cm long). Corolla bilabiate, petals 5, calyx divided into two parts, Stamens 4. It produces flower almost round the year. Fruit is nut
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis