Daruhoridra or Narrow-leaf morinda (Morinda angustifolia, family: Rubiaceae) is a shrub or small tree with soft branches attaining a height of 2 to 6 m. The evergreen plant is mostly found in the Shal forests, the Sundarbans and in coastal areas. It is also planted in the garden and parks. Indian subcontinent and China are its original home.
Leaves are dark green, lanceolate, dented, 10-30 cm long and 4-5 cm wide, tip pointed.
Flowers are showy, pure white, scented, tubular in the lower part, clustered on head inflorescence. Sepals 5, petals 5. flowering occurs throughout the year.
Fruits are very peculiar, composite. Each fruit seems to have one eye! The fruits become purplish when ripe. Propagation of the plant is caused by cutting and seed.
The plant has medicinal quality and used in asthma, common cold, vomiting and dysentery. It is also used to cure wound and regain energy. Bark and root are used in urinal problems. A kind of yellow color is made from its roots and used to dye carpet and fabrics. And for this reason the Bengali name of the plant is Daruhoridra.
Other local names: Borophul, Bon horidra, Bonomali, Bonshak, Horinar phul, Holdiruk, Jongli bonshak, Pandugi, Pandopi, Pandushi, Rong-gachh.
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Deua or Monkey jack ( Artocarpus lacucha , family: Moraceae) a large tree with large spreading crown, of 12-18 m height. The bark of the deciduous tree is grey and coarse. The type of its fruit reminds us of Jackfruit . It is found in South and Southeast Asia. It is one of the most common trees found in Bangladesh. Other names: Delo madar, deyphol, Deuphol, Dehua, Deua cham, Barta, Dalo, Bon kathal. Leaves are broadly elliptic, entire, rough, brittle, 10-30 cm long and 10-18 cm wide, undulate, back hairy, leathery. Flowers are small, without petals. Male and female flowers grow on the same inflorescence. Female inflorescence has pedicel, though the male one has none. The fruits come from the female flowers. Fruit is a syncarp (multiple fruit, which is fleshy), wavy, velvety, bright yellow or orange when ripe, 5-10 cm in diameter. The fruit is sour-tasted but also somewhat sweet. It is eaten raw or pickled. Seed is oblong and white in color. The pl
Kolmi-lota or Water spinach (I pomoea aquatica , family: Convolvulaceae) is an annual floating herb from Morning glory family. It is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, most commonly in East, South and Southeast Asia. Stem is soft and creeping nature. It grows in water or on the edge of water bodies. Common names: Kalmilata, Water spinach, River spinach, Water morning glory, Water convolvulus, Swamp cabbage The hollow stems of ipomoea aquatica are 2-5 meters or more long, rooting at the nodes. Leaves are long-petioled, green, ovate-cordate with pointed apex, 5-15 cm long and 2-8 cm wide , alternate. Flowers are whitish-violet or white, showy, single, axillary, funnel-shaped, 3-5 cm in diameter. Flower bloom s mainly in autumn. Propagation is either by planting cuttings of the stem shoots that will root along nodes or planting the seeds from flowers that produce seed pods. It is useful in pox and in