Bangladesh is a rich land of biodiversity. About 6000 species of plants are gathered in such a small area of 147570 sq km.
I am trying to introduce the flora of Bangladesh in a pack from the naturalist view, not from the eye of plant-expert. For this, there will be some unwanted mistakes.
Needless to say, pics used in this site are all original and snapped by me. The information are gathered here from the personal notes, collected books and from different websites.
Shinduri bij or Achiote, Bixa orellana
Shinduri bij or Achiote (Bixa orellana, family: Bixaceae) is an evergreen shrub or small tree with few branches and dense foliage. Dye extracted from seed is used to color ointment. Its original home is tropical America. Red Indians paint their body and lips by the color obtain from its seeds.
Shinny leaves are green, heart-shaped with pointed apex, veins and midribs are clear; 10-18 cm long and 6-12 cm wide, alternate, petiole, 5-7 cm long.
Flowers are very attractive, showy, purple-white, 5 cm across, borne on upright terminal panicles, 7-12 cm long; sepals 5, petals 5, with many stamens. Flower blooms in Autumn-winter.
Fruits are also attractive. They are globose, 3-5 cm across, covered with soft reddish prickles. Seeds covered with a thick red pulp which yields a valuable dye. Leaf, root and seed are used in preventing fever, gonorrhea, jaundice, dysentery and urinary problem.
The plant is propagated by seeds. In Bangladesh it is planted in gardens and parks for fruits and also for flowers. Occasionally, its seed-color is falsely sold at a high price as a Saffron. The beautiful plant is also called by Lotkan in Bangla and Lipstick tree in English. By the by, the vermilion-color is very similar to its seed-color, for this reason, it is known as Shinduri bij in Bangla.
Til or Sesame ( Sesamum indicum , family: Pedaliaceae) is an annual herb with hollow stem and branches attaining a height of 50 to 100 cm. Sesame or Til seed is one of the oldest oil-seed crops o f t h e w o r l d. The plant is originated in Africa. It is cultivated as crop throughout the tropical world. Leaves are opposite, broad lanceolate, dark green, 4- 14 cm long with an entire margin . Flower is hairy, white or light pink, borne on leaf axil; 3-5 cm long with a four-lobed mouth. In Bangladesh, i t blooms generally in April-May. Sesame fruit is a rectangular capsule, 2-7 cm long, covered with tiny soft hair . Tiler khaja, a type of sweetened food made from sesame seed is very popular in Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. Seeds are usually off-white in c o l o r. Sesame is energizing, carminative and diuretic. It increases breast milk and sperms in male. It has been found useful in dyspepsia a
Shimul or Red silk-cotton ( Bombax ceiba , family: Malvaceae) is one of the most common trees that found in Bangladesh. This deciduous straight tall tree with thorny trunk and spreading crown is also found in tropical regions of Asia. In Bangladesh, the tree is planted in parks and on highways and beside national monuments for its gorgeous fire-red flowers. It can reach a height up to 60 m. Common names: Shimul, Red silk-cotton, Red cotton tree. Leaves are large, spreading, glabrous, digitate, leaflets lanceolate, entire, 10-15 cm long; petiole is up to 20 cm long. It blooms in spring (March-April). Flowers red, numerous, appearing when the tree is bare of leaves, stamens numerous arranged in five outer bundles and one middle bundle. Fruit capsules, woody valves. 10-13 cm in length. Seeds smooth, black or grey embedded in long white wool. Oh! the flame of the forest! Young plant is used in dysentery, cough, plethora, malnutrition and sexu
Durba-ghash or Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon , family: Gramineae) is a perennial grass with cylindrical nodes and internodes. It creeps on ground by creating roots from nodes of stem. Stem (up to 45 cm long) is usually green, sometimes reddish. The creeping herb is a traditional medicinal plant of the Indian subcontinent. It is found all over the country as a crop weed. It is also found in South and Southeast Asia and The tropical region of Africa. Although its roots do not go deep into the soil, it retains the soil quite well. Otherwise, in a rainy country like ours, it would have been impossible to prevent soil erosion. Leaves are narrow or linear with pointed tip, pale green, minutly hairy, 2-8 cm long. The leaf ligules are covered with thin white hairs. Inflorescence is brownish green, divided in to 5 parts, each part 2-5 cm long. Flowering occurs almost round the year. It is propagated by seeds, rhyzome and stolon. The plant contains triterpe