Arjun or Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna, family: Combretaceae) is a medium or large-sized deciduous tree, of about 20-25 m height, with numerous drooping branches and large canopy. Bark is thick, whitish grey, smooth and loose. Wood is hard. It has long been used as one of the most popular medicinal plants in the Indian subcontinent. The tree is native to Bangladesh as well as Indian subcontinent. It is also found in some countries of South and Southeast Asia.
Common names: Arjuna, Arjun tree.
Leaves are simple, green, oblong and surprisingly conic, 10-20 cm long and 8-10 cm wide, sessile or less petioled, opposite, tip blunted.
Flowers on spike inflorescence, are small and whitish yellow. Flowering occurs in April-May with the arrival of new leaves.
Fruit is somewhat 5-angular and winged, woody, 2.5-3.5 cm long. Propagation is caused by seeds.
Propagation is caused by seeds. Local herbalists and enthusiasts do not allow the trunk of this tree to remain intact in order to get its bark filled with medicinal properties. Within a few days, however, it
healed its wound by creating some wrinkles in the trunk.
Its bark extract is used for cardiac diseases, as it contains tannin. Leaves are used for urinary disease, wound, dysentery, fever and pain. According to herbalists, drinking the juice of its bark with sugar and milk every morning cures heart disease. Decoction of the bark is very beneficial in diarrhea and hemorrhoids. The Vedic name of the tree is Kakubha. It is mentioned in ancient Charaka and Sushruta texts.
Synonyms: Pentaptera angustifolia, Pentaptera arjuna, Pentaptera glabra, Pentaptera obovata.
Makal or Mahakal ( Trichosanthes tricuspidata , family: Cucurbitaceae) is a woody climber with tendril and branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The multiangular-branched plant climbs up very far by holding any tree in the forest. It is found in the hilly areas as well as plain forests and village thickets in Bangladesh. It is also found in Indian subcontinent, Australia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia. According to ancient Sanskrit scriptures the other names of the plant are Bishala, Mohendro-baruni. In the Himalayas it has been seen at an altitude of 5000 feet. There are many refferences to the fruit in Bangla and Sanskrit literature. Someone is very nice to look at but he/she is useless--writers usually jokingly give examples of this fruit. Its roots and attractive fruits are packed with medicinal properties. The size and shape of leaves may vary. These are multilobed or trilobed, alternate, rough in both sides, 5-12 cm long, petioled, cor
Kodbel or Elephant wood apple ( Feronia limonia , family: Rutaceae) is medium-sized fruit-giving tree with straight trunk and numerous branches. Bark is dark grey. It has straight spines in axil. Some parts of the tree are quite fragrant--leaves, ripe fruits, seeds etc. The tree is planted as ornamental one in parks and gardens nowadays in Bangladesh. It is planted in the country as a homestead tree too. Other Bangla names: Koyetbel, Chirpaki. Leaflet is small, 5-7, and 3-4 cm wide, opposite, cuneate or obovate. Leaves are scented. Flowers are good-looking, showy. Those are reddish; calyx 5-lobbed, triangular; petals ovate. Male and female flowers can be seen in the same panicle. Flower blooms in March-April. Fruit is round, greenish white or ye l l o w is h w h ite at a glance, 8-10 cm in diameter. Skin is very hard but fragile. The pulp is fleshy and soft. Raw pulp is light brown, ripe is deep chocholate or yelowish brown. The ripe fruit is qu
Kulekhara or Talmakhna ( Hygrophila auriculata , family: Acanthaceae) is a stout and erect herb with straight and undivided stem. The spiny plant is very popular as a medicinal plant in Bangladesh as well as the Indian subcontinent. Other names: Kulekkha, Kuiley-rekha, Kanta kalika, Shoolmordon. Leaves are lanceolate, subsessile, acute at both ends with long whitish hairs, dense with straight and stout thorns that grow from each node. Outer leaves are longer than the inner ones. Both leaves and thorns remain in upward direction. Flowers in axillary whorls. They are bright violet or bluish purple and red, sometimes whitish with soft and minor hair, corolla 2-lipped. Flower blooms in the winter. Fruit a capsule, 4-8-seeded. Seeds are ovoid (not in the pic). The body of the plant contains alkaloids, phytosterols, stigmasterol, lupeol and essential oils. Its seeds contain oil, enzymes and sterols. The plant is cooling and diuretic in cases of h