Hogla or Southern cattail (Typha domingensis, family: Typhaceae) is a aquatic tall grass growing in cluster, attaining a height of 3 m. Stem is simple or terete. The perennial plant is found mostly in Sundarbans, as well as the southern districts in Bangladesh. There they can be seen standing in the water.
Other names: Chel-pata, Kaam, Tara.
It is also found in riverside area, on the edge of cannals and other water bodies of the country. It is also found in India, Northern Africa and Southern Europe.
Leaves are beautiful, long, semicylindric, clustered at athe base.
Flowers are small, whitish brown, borne on spikelet inflorescence. Male and female flowers grow on separate inflorescence. Flowers bloom in summer.
Fruits are long, chocolate-colored. When they mature, become divided. The plant is propagated by seeds and gland tubers.
The plant is an economic crop. Mat, fence and roof thach are made of it. It is also used to cover pile of fishes in box which keeps them fresh. Its roots can hold the soil. So it can be planted in waterside areas. Being a spectacular grass it can be kept in your aquatic gardens.
Rubber bot or Indian rubber ( Ficus elastica , family: Moraceae) is a medium or large evergreen tree with aerial prop roots grow from its branches. The fig tree with milky latex in its leaves and shoots can get a height of more than 30 meters. The trunk is smooth, black-colored and has very tiny whitish spots. This tree is well-known as an ornamental plant. In Bangladesh, it is found on roadside area or the edge of forest and in parks and gardens. The beautiful tree is native to South and Southeast Asia. Leaves are spectacular, simple, big, leathery, deep green, sometimes deep purplish, shiny and smooth, elliptic-ovate, 12-30 cm long and 5-12 cm wide, petioled, alternate, acuminate at the top. Florets remain inside the fruit or fig which cannot be seen from outside. Fruiting occurs in the late spring. Fruits develop in the nodes of the Fruits. They usually round, sometimes slender in shape. Mature fruits are yellow or red in color. The plant is propagated by
Makal or Mahakal ( Trichosanthes tricuspidata , family: Cucurbitaceae) is a woody climber with tendril and branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The multiangular-branched plant climbs up very far by holding any tree in the forest. It is found in the hilly areas as well as plain forests and village thickets in Bangladesh. It is also found in Indian subcontinent, Australia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia. According to ancient Sanskrit scriptures the other names of the plant are Bishala, Mohendro-baruni. In the Himalayas it has been seen at an altitude of 5000 feet. There are many refferences to the fruit in Bangla and Sanskrit literature. Someone is very nice to look at but he/she is useless--writers usually jokingly give examples of this fruit. Its roots and attractive fruits are packed with medicinal properties. The size and shape of leaves may vary. These are multilobed or trilobed, alternate, rough in both sides, 5-12 cm long, petioled, cor
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis