Mushok-dana or Musk-mallow (Abelmoschus moschatus, family: Malvaceae) is a perennial erect herb or undershrub attaining a height of 3 m. Stem is cylindrical and reddish. Young shoots, pedicel and petiole are retrorsely (opposite direction) hairy.
The plant almost looks similar to popular vegetable Okra (abelmoschus esculentus). It is found near the water bodies, fallow lands, roadside areas and forest edges in Bangladesh. It is also found in India as well as Southeast Asia.
The another Bangla name of the plant is Kala-kosturi.
Lower leaves are angular, upper palmately lobed, dark green, oblong-lanceolate, ovate, 20-24 cm long, serrate or dented, hairy on both sides. Leaf-base has a crown-like portion. Petiole is very long.
Flower axillay, solitary and in terminal clusters. They are big, light yellow with dark purple center, petals 5, unequal; corolla 10 cm across. Epicalyx segments 6-10, linear-lanceolate. Flowering occurs in the rainy season. Flower and fruit can be seen together in the same plant till late autumn.
Fruit is a capsule, 5-angled, dark brown, dehiscent; 4-6 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, ovoid-oblong. Seeds are scented, black in color, ovoid and glabrous.
Stem yields a jute-like fibre suitable for making ropes. A kind of perfumed oil is extracted from its crushed seeds.
The seeds with bitter and sharp taste are cooling, tonic, carmunative and aphrodisiac. The leaves and young parts are eaten as vegetables. The propagation of the plant is caused by seeds.
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Deua or Monkey jack ( Artocarpus lacucha , family: Moraceae) a large tree with large spreading crown, of 12-18 m height. The bark of the deciduous tree is grey and coarse. The type of its fruit reminds us of Jackfruit . It is found in South and Southeast Asia. It is one of the most common trees found in Bangladesh. Other names: Delo madar, deyphol, Deuphol, Dehua, Deua cham, Barta, Dalo, Bon kathal. Leaves are broadly elliptic, entire, rough, brittle, 10-30 cm long and 10-18 cm wide, undulate, back hairy, leathery. Flowers are small, without petals. Male and female flowers grow on the same inflorescence. Female inflorescence has pedicel, though the male one has none. The fruits come from the female flowers. Fruit is a syncarp (multiple fruit, which is fleshy), wavy, velvety, bright yellow or orange when ripe, 5-10 cm in diameter. The fruit is sour-tasted but also somewhat sweet. It is eaten raw or pickled. Seed is oblong and white in color. The pl
Kolmi-lota or Water spinach (I pomoea aquatica , family: Convolvulaceae) is an annual floating herb from Morning glory family. It is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, most commonly in East, South and Southeast Asia. Stem is soft and creeping nature. It grows in water or on the edge of water bodies. Common names: Kalmilata, Water spinach, River spinach, Water morning glory, Water convolvulus, Swamp cabbage The hollow stems of ipomoea aquatica are 2-5 meters or more long, rooting at the nodes. Leaves are long-petioled, green, ovate-cordate with pointed apex, 5-15 cm long and 2-8 cm wide , alternate. Flowers are whitish-violet or white, showy, single, axillary, funnel-shaped, 3-5 cm in diameter. Flower bloom s mainly in autumn. Propagation is either by planting cuttings of the stem shoots that will root along nodes or planting the seeds from flowers that produce seed pods. It is useful in pox and in