Pitalu or False White Teak (Trewia nudiflora, family: Euphorbiaceae) is a medium-sized deciduous tree with soft stem. Young branches and leaf backs are hairy. This is an indigenous plant of Bangladesh, as well as Indian subcontinent.
Leaves are simple, green, ovate-cordate, 10-18 cm long and 6-13 cm wide, edge entire or serrate, apex acute, oppositely arranged. Petiole is 2.5-8 cm long.
During the spring when flowering comes it seems to be the best flowering tree of the land. Male and female flowers appear on separate trees.
Male flowers are borne on 20 cm long hanging spike inflorescence. Female flowers usually grow as single on long penduncle. Male flowers bear numerous yellow stamens. Female flowers have no petals. Flowering season of the tree is spring (Feb-Apr).
Fruit is globose, 2-4 cm wide, 5 chambered. Fruit ripens in Oct-Dec. Propagation is easily possible from seeds.
The plant is found almost everywhere in Bangladesh. May be that's why the plant has many Bangla names: Pitthalu, Pitali, pitalu, Medda, Meragota, Lattu, Latim, Laddu.
Timber is light and used in making packing box. It is also used as firewood. During the rainy season, the village children play with the fruit in the water. It is a water-loving tree. More than that, the tree can survive after being submerged for long period.
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Makal or Mahakal ( Trichosanthes tricuspidata , family: Cucurbitaceae) is a woody climber with tendril and branches, attaining a height of 10-12 m. The multiangular-branched plant climbs up very far by holding any tree in the forest. It is found in the hilly areas as well as plain forests and village thickets in Bangladesh. It is also found in Indian subcontinent, Australia and some countries of South and Southeast Asia. According to ancient Sanskrit scriptures the other names of the plant are Bishala, Mohendro-baruni. In the Himalayas it has been seen at an altitude of 5000 feet. There are many refferences to the fruit in Bangla and Sanskrit literature. Someone is very nice to look at but he/she is useless--writers usually jokingly give examples of this fruit. Its roots and attractive fruits are packed with medicinal properties. The size and shape of leaves may vary. These are multilobed or trilobed, alternate, rough in both sides, 5-12 cm long, petioled, cor
Kulekhara or Talmakhna ( Hygrophila auriculata , family: Acanthaceae) is a stout and erect herb with straight and undivided stem. The spiny plant is very popular as a medicinal plant in Bangladesh as well as the Indian subcontinent. Other names: Kulekkha, Kuiley-rekha, Kanta kalika, Shoolmordon. Leaves are lanceolate, subsessile, acute at both ends with long whitish hairs, dense with straight and stout thorns that grow from each node. Outer leaves are longer than the inner ones. Both leaves and thorns remain in upward direction. Flowers in axillary whorls. They are bright violet or bluish purple and red, sometimes whitish with soft and minor hair, corolla 2-lipped. Flower blooms in the winter. Fruit a capsule, 4-8-seeded. Seeds are ovoid (not in the pic). The body of the plant contains alkaloids, phytosterols, stigmasterol, lupeol and essential oils. Its seeds contain oil, enzymes and sterols. The plant is cooling and diuretic in cases of h