Sotthi or Zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria, family: Zingiberaceae) is a perennial herb with underground tubers. It is the closest relative of Turmeric. Needless to say, the characteristics of the two are almost the same. The underground tuber or rhizome is Camphor-scented and white-colored, spreading like Ginger or Turmeric. It is native to South and Southeast Asia. It is found in the rural area, Sal forests and the foothills of hilly areas in Bangladesh.
Other names: Shoti, Shuvodra, Shoumya, Polashika, Shugondhomula (Bang); White turmeric (Eng).
Leaves arise from the tubers. Leaves are glabrous, about1 m long, narrow at the petiole.
Flower blooms in spring-summer. At this time, when it rains a little, a fairy, quite long receptacle (inflorescence stick; about 50 cm long) come out from the rhizome. The bracts in receptacle are purplish and greenish. Although the whole receptacle looks like a flower, the flowers are actually quite small, bloom in the lap of bracts. These are funnel-shaped and yellow in color. It usually does not produce fruits. Propagation is caused by the division of tubers.
Its rhizome is used to prepare medicine for skin diseases, fever, diarrhoea, worm, tumour and enlargement of the spleen.
Deua or Monkey jack ( Artocarpus lacucha , family: Moraceae) a large tree with large spreading crown, of 12-18 m height. The bark of the deciduous tree is grey and coarse. The type of its fruit reminds us of Jackfruit . It is found in South and Southeast Asia. It is one of the most common trees found in Bangladesh. Other names: Delo madar, deyphol, Deuphol, Dehua, Deua cham, Barta, Dalo, Bon kathal. Leaves are broadly elliptic, entire, rough, brittle, 10-30 cm long and 10-18 cm wide, undulate, back hairy, leathery. Flowers are small, without petals. Male and female flowers grow on the same inflorescence. Female inflorescence has pedicel, though the male one has none. The fruits come from the female flowers. Fruit is a syncarp (multiple fruit, which is fleshy), wavy, velvety, bright yellow or orange when ripe, 5-10 cm in diameter. The fruit is sour-tasted but also somewhat sweet. It is eaten raw or pickled. Seed is oblong and white in color. The pl
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Kolmi-lota or Water spinach (I pomoea aquatica , family: Convolvulaceae) is an annual floating herb from Morning glory family. It is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, most commonly in East, South and Southeast Asia. Stem is soft and creeping nature. It grows in water or on the edge of water bodies. Common names: Kalmilata, Water spinach, River spinach, Water morning glory, Water convolvulus, Swamp cabbage The hollow stems of ipomoea aquatica are 2-5 meters or more long, rooting at the nodes. Leaves are long-petioled, green, ovate-cordate with pointed apex, 5-15 cm long and 2-8 cm wide , alternate. Flowers are whitish-violet or white, showy, single, axillary, funnel-shaped, 3-5 cm in diameter. Flower bloom s mainly in autumn. Propagation is either by planting cuttings of the stem shoots that will root along nodes or planting the seeds from flowers that produce seed pods. It is useful in pox and in