Bangladesh is a rich land of biodiversity. About 6000 species of plants are gathered in such a small area of 147570 sq km.
I am trying to introduce the flora of Bangladesh in a pack from the naturalist view, not from the eye of plant-expert. For this, there will be some unwanted mistakes.
Needless to say, pics used in this site are all original and snapped by me. The information are gathered here from the personal notes, collected books and from different websites.
Ashoth, Bodhi tree, Ficus religiosa
Ashoth, Ashwatha orBodhi tree(Ficus religiosa, family: Moraceae) is a gigantic and very aggressive tree. This deciduous tree holds well-spread crown & has irregularly shaped trunk. The tree is originally found in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand. It is
introduced to Israel and USA.
Common names: Pippala, Peepal, Ashwattha
Formation of leaves
In Ramna Park (Dhaka) a centennial Oshoth tree is the center of attraction of the festival of Pohela Boishakh (Bangla new year) arranged by Chhayanaut.
During the festival of Pohela Boishakh
Deciduous ficus religiosa gives reddish new foliage in the spring (March).
Fruits are fig, develop in pair on leaf axil, sessile, sub-globose, depressed & pink when ripe. Small unisexualflowers remain inside fig.
It can grow everywhere in Bangladesh. It can be found on roof or window-shade of a building, in waterside area, on roadside or a huge trunk or stem of a tree.
Leaves are alternate, broad-ovate, 10-20 cm long with acuminate apex and undulate margin, shiny above, petiole 7-10 cm long.
Almost every parts of the plant have medicinal properties. It is used in rheumatism, sexual weakness, plethora and sore. The seeds are dispersed easily by birds, bats or by other creatures.
Ficus religiosa spreads its root aggressively on the host litchi tree
The tree has nice looking spreading crown
The large tree is planted on both sides of the street for its dense shadow. As an ornamental tree it is also planted in parks and gardens.
Hijol or Indian oak ( Barringtonia acutangula , family: Lecythidaceae) is a medium-sized evergreen tree, native to riverine Bangladesh. This water-loving tree is found in the wetlands of Bangladesh. In rural areas, it can be seen standing in the water like Koronja . Common names: Hijal, Hijangal, Hendol. Leaves are short petioled, serrated, 7-12 cm long and 3-7 cm wide, crowded at the end of the branches. Flowers are small, pink to red, sub-sessile, purple red with numerous stamens. Inflorescence is 20-30 cm long, pendulous raceme, flower openning from top to downwards. The 4-merous flowers are grouped in long & pendulous racemes up to 20-30 cm long. The cup-shaped calyx is light green in color. Flowers bloom in April-May. In the winter Its bark has tannin which is useful for heart diseases. Powder of seeds works expectorant and applied to cure cough of children. Tonic is prepared from leaves and roots. Fish poison is also prepared from its roots
Guloncho or Heart-leaved moonseed ( Tinospora cordifolia , family: Menispermaceae) is a deciduous creeper with hard and long stem, climbing other trees or fences. Bark on the stem is as thin as paper. Aerial roots come out of the stem when the plant grows older. The plant is found everywhere in Bangladesh except southern part. It is also native to South and Southeast Asia. Common names: Heart-leaved moonseed, Guduchi, Giloy, Guloncho, Guroncho, Padma guloncho. Leaves are simple, green, alternate, cordate, 6-15 cm long and 5-13 cm wide. Inflorescence, growing from the axil of leaflet branches, bears yellow flowers. Male and female flowers bloom separately. Sepals 6, arranged in two rows, petal 6, pistils 3. Fruit is a drupe, brilliant red when ripe. This attractive fruit is inedible to human. What an extensive climber! Tinospora cordifolia is used in weakness, tastelessness, rheumatis
Kulekhara or Talmakhna ( Hygrophila auriculata , family: Acanthaceae) is a stout and erect herb with straight and undivided stem. The spiny plant is very popular as a medicinal plant in Bangladesh as well as the Indian subcontinent. Other names: Kulekkha, Kuiley-rekha, Kanta kalika, Shoolmordon. Leaves are lanceolate, subsessile, acute at both ends with long whitish hairs, dense with straight and stout thorns that grow from each node. Outer leaves are longer than the inner ones. Both leaves and thorns remain in upward direction. Flowers in axillary whorls. They are bright violet or bluish purple and red, sometimes whitish with soft and minor hair, corolla 2-lipped. Flower blooms in the winter. Fruit a capsule, 4-8-seeded. Seeds are ovoid (not in the pic). The body of the plant contains alkaloids, phytosterols, stigmasterol, lupeol and essential oils. Its seeds contain oil, enzymes and sterols. The plant is cooling and diuretic in cases of h