Bangladesh is a rich land of biodiversity. About 6000 species of plants are gathered in such a small area of 147570 sq km.
I am trying to introduce the flora of Bangladesh in a pack from the naturalist view, not from the eye of plant-expert. For this, there will be some unwanted mistakes.
Needless to say, pics used in this site are all original and snapped by me. The information are gathered here from the personal notes, collected books and from different websites.
Ashoth, Bodhi tree, Ficus religiosa
Ashoth, Ashwatha orBodhi tree(Ficus religiosa, family: Moraceae) is a gigantic and very aggressive tree. This deciduous tree holds well-spread crown & has irregularly shaped trunk. The tree is originally found in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand. It is
introduced to Israel and USA.
Common names: Pippala, Peepal, Ashwattha
Formation of leaves
In Ramna Park (Dhaka) a centennial Oshoth tree is the center of attraction of the festival of Pohela Boishakh (Bangla new year) arranged by Chhayanaut.
During the festival of Pohela Boishakh
Deciduous ficus religiosa gives reddish new foliage in the spring (March).
Fruits are fig, develop in pair on leaf axil, sessile, sub-globose, depressed & pink when ripe. Small unisexualflowers remain inside fig.
It can grow everywhere in Bangladesh. It can be found on roof or window-shade of a building, in waterside area, on roadside or a huge trunk or stem of a tree.
Leaves are alternate, broad-ovate, 10-20 cm long with acuminate apex and undulate margin, shiny above, petiole 7-10 cm long.
Almost every parts of the plant have medicinal properties. It is used in rheumatism, sexual weakness, plethora and sore. The seeds are dispersed easily by birds, bats or by other creatures.
Ficus religiosa spreads its root aggressively on the host litchi tree
The tree has nice looking spreading crown
The large tree is planted on both sides of the street for its dense shadow. As an ornamental tree it is also planted in parks and gardens.
Til or Sesame ( Sesamum indicum , family: Pedaliaceae) is an annual herb with hollow stem and branches attaining a height of 50 to 100 cm. Sesame or Til seed is one of the oldest oil-seed crops o f t h e w o r l d. The plant is originated in Africa. It is cultivated as crop throughout the tropical world. Leaves are opposite, broad lanceolate, dark green, 4- 14 cm long with an entire margin . Flower is hairy, white or light pink, borne on leaf axil; 3-5 cm long with a four-lobed mouth. In Bangladesh, i t blooms generally in April-May. Sesame fruit is a rectangular capsule, 2-7 cm long, covered with tiny soft hair . Tiler khaja, a type of sweetened food made from sesame seed is very popular in Bangladesh. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. Seeds are usually off-white in c o l o r. Sesame is energizing, carminative and diuretic. It increases breast milk and sperms in male. It has been found useful in dyspepsia a
Shimul or Red silk-cotton ( Bombax ceiba , family: Malvaceae) is one of the most common trees that found in Bangladesh. This deciduous straight tall tree with thorny trunk and spreading crown is also found in tropical regions of Asia. In Bangladesh, the tree is planted in parks and on highways and beside national monuments for its gorgeous fire-red flowers. It can reach a height up to 60 m. Common names: Shimul, Red silk-cotton, Red cotton tree. Leaves are large, spreading, glabrous, digitate, leaflets lanceolate, entire, 10-15 cm long; petiole is up to 20 cm long. It blooms in spring (March-April). Flowers red, numerous, appearing when the tree is bare of leaves, stamens numerous arranged in five outer bundles and one middle bundle. Fruit capsules, woody valves. 10-13 cm in length. Seeds smooth, black or grey embedded in long white wool. Oh! the flame of the forest! Young plant is used in dysentery, cough, plethora, malnutrition and sexu
Danda-kolosh or Shetodron ( Leucas aspera , family: Lamiaceae) is an annual herb with soft, hairy and qudrangular stem. The weed is found in South and Southeast Asia. It prefers dry, open and sandy soil. The under-shrub can reach a height of 30-50 cm. Other local names: Dolkolosh, Julfi, Holkosha, Debdron. Flowers rise from axillary whorls are pure white, small and showy. Petals 5, sepals 5, bilabiate. It blooms in March-April mainly. Flower contains nectar. Leaves are short petioled, entire, oblong-lanceolate, taper at the base; 6-8 cm long and 1-2 cm wide. In Sanskrit, it is called 'Dronapushpi'. Oblong fruits are nutlets, brown in color; 2-3 mm long. Propagation of the plant is caused by seeds. The plant is full of medicinal qualities. Whole plant is used to prepare medicine, which is effective in cold and headache. The leaves contain antibacterial elements. It is used to cure psoriasis and scabies. Those are eaten as vegetable